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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
human immunodeficiency virus
RNA retrovirus that uses reverse transciptase to replicate; has envelope around it taken from host cell; rapid rate of evolution due to high mutation rate caused by errors in action of reverse transcriptase.
Reverse transcriptase
RNA is transcripted into DNA for replication
genetic change in a group of organisms
organism is an imperfect representation of the ideal perfect form
Systema Naturae- basis of modern classification; Developed hierarchical classification system
uniform processes
Charles Lyell and James Hutton
nature changes
world very old
developed early evolutionary theory
Mechanisms of evolution: 1. Use and disuse 2. Believed in inheritance of acquired characteristics 3. organisms evolved in specific direction
came from wealthy family; studied medicine and theology
Naturalist on voyage of Beagle
Developed theory of natural selection; amassed evidenc but didn't publish; Wrote the orgin of species (1859)
Economist; wrote essay on population growth and resources that influenced Darwin (1838)
Alfred Russel Wallace
Developed natural selection concept separately from Darwin; sent it to Darwin to look over (1858); ideas of Darwin and _______ presented together
Post Darwinian return to the evolutionary theory of Lamarck.
Post Darwinian idea that evolution occurs in a specific generation
Post Darwinian idea that evolution brought about by mutations that have major effects
modern synthesis
(1930s & 1940s) resulted in the synthesis of Darwinian evolution and Mendelian genetics as the mechanism for natural selection
natural selection
Differential reproduction of genotypes; Only evolutionary force that leads to adaptation
developed early evolutionary theory
Mechanisms of evolution: 1. Use and disuse 2. Believed in inheritance of acquired characteristics 3. organisms evolved in specific direction
relative reproductive success of a genotype
scientific theory
widely held explanation supported by much evidence
evolutionary theory
widely held idea that explains much of biological diversity and many life processes
Possession by 2 or more species of a character state derived, with or without modivication, from their common ancestor; homologous traits have common evolutionary orgin
evolution within a lineage (line of descent)
branching of a lineage
evolutionary relationships among group of organisms
phylogenetic analysis
study of phylongeny
phylogenetic tree
graphical representation of evolutionary relationship
OTUs (Operational Tacanomic Units)
Organismal or biological units for which phylogeny is created
terminal node
represents OTUs
internal node
represents common ancestors; usually extinct
evolutionary connections
used to root the tree (a rooted tree has a common ancestor to all OTUs)
monophyletic set of species whose relationships we wish to infer.
gene tree
diagram representing the history by which gene copies have been derived from ancestral gene copies in previous generations
characteriestic or trait
named taxonomic unit to which an individual or groups of individuals belong
branching pattern of the tree
monophyletic taxon
set of all known descendants from a single ancestor
polyphyletic taxon
group of organisms that are not all descendants from a single ancestor
paraphyletic taxon
group of orgnaisms that includes some but not all descendants of a single ancestor
terminal node has the same trait as the ancestor (primitive trait)
terminal node has a trait different from that of the ancestor (derived trait)
unique characteristic
shared derived characters
rooted tree
has a common ancestor to all OTUs
preffered explanation is the simplest one
Possession by 2 or more species of a similar or identical character state that has not been derived by both speices from their common ancestor.
convergent evolution
natural selection causes traits with different evolutionary orgins to be similar
evolutionary reversal
trait that has been changed reverts back to ancestral form
parallel evolution
the evolution of similar of identical features independently in related lineages, though usually to be based on similar modifications of the same developmental pathways
Distance measures based on overall differneces in sequence
Parsimony methods based on minimum number of evolutionarey steps used to produce a sequence of OTUs
mosaic evolution
evolution of different characters within a lineage or clade at different rates, more or less independently of one another
proposition that large differences in phenotypic characters have evolved through many slightly different intermediate states
An evolutionary change in phenotype caused by an alteration of timing of developmental events
paedomorphism (neoteny)
possession in the adult stage of features typical of the juvenile stage of the organism's ancestor.
allometric growth
Growth of a feature during ontogeny at a rate different from that of another feature with which it is compared
igneous rocks
formed from molten material (magma); don't contain fossils
sedimentary rocks
formed from sediments; contain fossils
metamorphic rocks
formed through alteration of igneous of sedimentary rock; any fossils usually destrpyed through _________ process
plate tectonics
Outer layer of Earth composed of plated that move; surface of the Earth has undergone change; present positions of continents different from past positions
any trace of an organism that lived in the past
fossil record
worldwide collection of fossils in the world
compression and impression fossils
structure buried by sediments; leaves impression on material below
replacement fossils
structure buried in sediments, dissolved minerals replace original material;
mineralized water seeps into pores and menerals precipitate into spaces
cast fossil
structure decays or shells dissolve after being buried in sediments; new material fills space and hardens to rock
mold fossil
structure decays or shells dissolve after being buried in sediments; space unfilled
unaltered remains
may be preserved in special environments (i.e. ice, peat bogs, amber)
heritable change in DNA
somatic mutation
mutations in somatic cells; don't pass to offspring
germline mutation
mutation in germ line cells
gene mutation
mutation affecting a single gene
chromosome mutation
change in the number or structure of chromosomes
a mutation that changes a nucleotide to another nucleotide in the same class
A mutation that changes a nucleotide to another nucleotide in the opposite class
missense mutation
alters amino acids in protein
nonsense mutation
alters a sense codon to a stop codon
silent mutation
Doesn't alter amino acid sequence due to synonymous codons and noncoding DNA
neutral mutation
Alters the amino acid structure but doesn't affect the function of the protein
gene deletion
removal of a gene from the chromosome due to unequal crossing over or strand slippage
expanding trinucleotide repeat
the number of copies of trinucleotides increase most likely due to slippage during replication; occurs in Huntington disease.
transposable element
genetic elements that can move; includes: insertion sequences, DNA transposons, and retrotransposons
similar to a retrovirus; carry a gene for enzyme reverse transcriptase
chromosome rearrangement
change in the chromosome structure
change in the number of individual chromosomes
change in the number of chromosome sets
chromosome duplication
the addition of an extra copy of a chromosome in the genome
chromosome deletion
the removal of an entire chromosome in the genome
chromosome inversion
A 180 degree reversal of the orientation of a part of a chromosome, relative to some standard chromosome.
chromosome translocation
by breakage and union, two nonhomologous chromosomes exchange segments
dosage effects
The number of doses of a protein has an effect on the phenotype of the organism.
2n-1; missing a chromosome
2n-2; missing a homologous chromosome pair
2n+1; having an extra chromosome
2n+2; having 2 extra chromosomes
a type of polyploidy in which all genomes are from a single species
A type of polyploidy in which the genomes are from 2 or more species
Mendelian population
A diploid, sexually reprodiucing group of individuals
allelic frequency
The proportion of gene copies in a population that are a given allele; the probability of finding this allele when a gene is taken randomly from the population; also gene frequency
genotypic frequency
The proportion of genotypes in a population that are a given genotype; the probability of finding this genotype when a gene is taken randomly form the population
Hardy-Weinberg law
Indicates what happens when only reproduction occurs; In a large randomly mating population free from evolutionary forces the allelic frequency does not change and the genotypic frequency stabalizes after one generation in the proportion p2+2pq+q2; applies only to a single locus
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
a population at the following genotypic proportions p2+2pq+q2
random mating
mating without regard to genotype; the probability of mating between genotypes is equal to the product of the genotype frequencies.
positive assortative mating
tendency for like individuals to mate
negative assortative mating
tendency for unlike individuals to mate
preferential mating between related individuals which causes a departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
inbreeding coefficient
F; measures inbreeding in a population
bone morphogenic protein 4
Bmp4 gene which is importnat in cranial and beak development in birds; increased expression of the gene results in longer, wider, and deeper beaks whereas decreased expression of the gene results in smaller beaks
inbreeding depression
inbreeding increases the frequency of homozygotes for deleterious allels; decreases fitness
genetic drift
changes in allelic frequency due to chance factors; changes due to sampling error (chance deviations from expected ratios)
includes frogs, salamanders, and caecilians
Edwards Plateau
region of central TX characterized by cretaceous limestone;
Edwards aquifer
springs and caves inhabited by endemic aquatic organisms
founder effect
population founded by a small number of individuals; initial gene pool consists of a limited number of alleles; often seen on island populations
bottleneck effect
population size reduced; afterwards, population is reestablished from a limited gene pool
effective population size
effective number of breeding adults
attainment of a frequency of 1 (100%) by an allele in a population, which becomes monomorphic for the allele
branching events in a phylogenic tree
molecular clock
the concept of a steady rate of change in DNA sequences over time, providing a basis for dating the time of divergence of lineages if the rate of change cna be estimated
a DNA sequencethat differs from homologous sequences at one or more base pair sites
A node with three or more branches representing a group of three or more taxa whose relationships cannot be confidently resolved
horizontal gene transfer
Movement of genes between individual organisms other than by transmission from parents to their offspring.
A branching diagram depicting relationships among taxa; an estimated history of the relative sequence in which they have evolved from common ancestors
The set of species descended from a particular ancestral species
evolutionary trend
succession of changes of a character in the same direction, either within a single lineage or in many lineages independently
geological time scale
geological eras and periods distinguished by distinctive fossil taxa; great changes in faunal composition due to mass extinctions mark many of the boundaries between them
radiometric dating
determination of the absolute ages of geological events by measuring the decay of certain radioactive elements in minerals that form in igneous rock
layers of sediment deposited at different times
eras, periods, and epochs
divisions of the geological time scale
Dollo's law
complex characters once lost are not regained
Cope's rule
evolutionary trend of body size to increase over time in many animal clades
Multiple lineages that have evolved through similar stages
punctuated equilibria
A pattern of rapid evolutionary change in the phenotype of a lineage separated by long periods of little change; also, a hypothesis intended to explain such a pattern, whereby phenotypic change transpires rapidly in small populations, in concert with the evolution of reproductive isolation
phyletic gradualism
the traditional notion of slow, incremental change in evolution
A part of a gene that is not translated into a polypeptide
a triplet of bases in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid in the growing polypeptide chain
A short, highly repeated, untranslated DNA sequence
gene family
groups of genes that are similar in sequence and often have related functions
gene control region
untranscribed sequences to which regulatory proteins produced by other genes bind
A nonfunctional member of a gene family that has been derived from a functional gene
One of several forms of the same gene, presumably differing by mutation of the DNA sequence; usually recognized by phenotypic effects
genetic marker
detectable mutations that geneticists use to recognize specific regions of chromosomes or genes
frameshift mutation
An insertion or deletion of base pairs in a translatedDNA sequence that alters the reading frame, resulting in multiple downstream changes in the gene product
synonymous mutation
Fication of a base pair change that does not alter the amino acid in the protein product of the gene; also silent substitution
nonsynonymous mutation
A base pair substitution in DNA that results in an amino acid substitution in the protein product; also replacement substitution
unequal crossing over
unequal exchange of DNA that can occur between two homologous sequences or chromosomes that are not perfectly aligned
back mutation
mutaton of a mutant allele back to the allele (usually the wild type) from which it arose
polygenic character
A character whose variation is based wholly or in part on allelic variation at more than a few loci
homeotic mutation
A mutation that causes a transformation of one structure into another of the organism's structures
A phenotypic effect of a gene on more than one character
Random mating among members of a population
concealed genetic variation
genetic variation that occurs in a recessive allele
The existence within a population of 2 or more genotypes, the rarest of which exceeds some arbitrarily low frequency; more rarely, the existence of phenotypic variation within a population, whether or not genetically based
having one form; refers to a population in which virtually all individuals have the same genotype at a locus
lethal allele
An allele (usually recessive)that causes virtually complete mortality, usually early in development
One of several forms of an enzyme encoded by different alleles at a locus
linkage disequilibrium
The associaton of two alleles at two or more loci more frequently (or less frequently) than predicted by their individual frequencies
linkage equilibrium
The association of two alleles at two or more loci at the frequency predicted by their individual frequencies
of two species or populations, occupying the same geographic locality so that the opportunity to interbreed is presented
Of a population or species, occupying a geographic region different from that of another population or species
Of two species or populations, having contigous but non-overlapping geographic distributions
A named geographic race; a set of populations of a species that share one or more distinctive features and occupy a different geographic area from other subspecies
hybrid zone
A region in which genetically distinct populations come into contact and produce at least some offspring of mixed ancestry
A gradual change in an allele frequency or in the mean of a character over a geographic transect
A genetically determined phenotype of a species that is found as a local variant associated with certain ecological conditions
character displacement
Usually refers to a pattern of geographic variation in which a character differs more greatly between sympatric than between allopatric populations of two species; sometimes used for the evolutionary process of accentuation of differences between sympatric popuations of two species a s a result of the reproductive or ecolotical interactions between them
genetic distance
Any of several measures of the degree of genetic difference between populations, based on differences in allel frequencies
sampling error
the proportions of different kinds of alleles in a sample are likely to differ, by chance, from the proportions in the set of items from whcih the sample is drawn
Derivation of the gene copies in one or more populations from a single ancestral copy, viewed retrospectively (from the present back into the past)
neutral theory of molecular evolution
hypothesis that states that the evolution of DNA sequences occurs by genetic drift rather than by natural selection