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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why did Darwin delay the publication of The Origin of Species?
Because of "special creation" was still very popular
What is Uniformitarianism and how does it relate to the process of Natural Selection?
(Geological Process) Uniform & have operated as such from the orgin of the Earth until present
What is a geometric progression? How does it relate to NS?
population growth
What is arithmetic progression? How does it relate to NS?
food supply
supply gradually increases with large population jumps
Finch study -> What type of selection? What influenced beak size ? How did this relate to rainfall?
~big seed, small seed, everything dying off
~1200 individuals in a pop. that lived up to 16 y/o ~population variation-> variation is genetically heritable
~drough killed lots and they came back adn have beak change
~Natural selection influenced beak size
~Related to rainfall
~Survival & reproduction are non-random
What are the conditions necessary for Natural Selection?
1>Pop. vary in traits
2>traits are genetically heritable
3>More offspring are produced than can survive
4>Survival & reproduction are non-random
What are the agents of evolutionary change-review notes of mutation, geneflow, nonrandom mating, genetic drift
Mutation->errors made by DNA polymerase (protein causing genes=changes in amimo acids)

Geneflow->movement of alleles from one population to anothe

Nonrandom mating->indivduals with whom you are likely to share alleles.
Assortive-mating with similar genotypes.
Disassortive-mating with dissimilar genotypes.

Genetic drift->random with respect to fitness (most pronounced in small pops, can lead to random loss & fixation of alleles.
What is fitness?
ability of an individual to produce offspring
What is artifical selection?
In the theory of evolution, artificial selection is the process of intentional or unintentional modification of a species through human actions which encourage the breeding of certain traits over others
How does natural selection produce major change?
Provides species with traits that will allow them to adapt and survive to the everchanging enviroment
What is homology?
Study of likeness or similarity
What is a vestigial structure?
Reduced or incompletely developed structure that has little or No function but clearly similar to functioning structures in other species

ex. Tailbone
How do imperfect structures relate to the theory of evolution by Natural Selection? What is convergent evolution?
Imperfect structures of a species relate to the theory of evolutionary change because traits in a population change as the environment correlates so some species structures completely evolved or are a vestigial trait

Convergent evolution-> due to natural selection favoring similar solutions to problems possesed by the environment
Be able to recognize disruptive, directional, stabilizing selection.
Disruptive-> increase of variation-NO MEAN CHANGE

Stabilizing-> NO MEAN CHANGE/loss of variation

Directional->MEAN CHANGE/no change in variation
What is the difference between macroevolution and microevolution?
Micro->evolution in population; changes in allele frequencies

Macro-> origin of NEW taxonomic groups (species)