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37 Cards in this Set

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Georges Cuvier
developed paleontology
James Hutton
gradualism - change is the product of slow continuous processes
Lamarck
1. use and disuse
2. inheritance of acquired characteristics
Natural Selection
1. differential success in reproduction
2. occurs through interaction between environment and organisms
3. product is adaptation
Artificial selection
breeding domesticated plants/animals
Homology
similarity in charactersitics resulting from common ancestry
Biogeography
geographic distribution of species
endemic
species found nowhere else
population
localized group of individuals of the same species
species
a group of populations whose organisms have the ability to interbreed and reproduce viable offspring
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
describes a non-evolving population

1. large population
2. no migration
3. no net mutations
4. random mating
5. no natural selection
Genetic drift
a change in population's allele frequency due to channce
Bottleneck Effect
population size is greatly reduced and population is misrepresented
Founder Effect
genetic drift in a new colony
Gene Flow
genetic exchange due to migration
polymorphism
two or more forms if a discrete character a represented in a population (i.e. red and white wildflowers)
gene diversity
the average percent of the loci on a genome that are heterozygous
geographic variation
differences in gene pools between populations or subgroups of populations
heterozygous advantage
individuals who are heterozygous have greater survivorship and reproductive success
frequency dependent selection
survival and reproduction of any one morph declines if that phenotypic form becomes too common in the population
Darwinian fitness
contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions to the other individuals
intersexual selection
mate choice
intrasexual
one sex competes with other members of the same sex for a mate from the opposite sex
Prezygotic barriers
impedes fertilization
1. habitat isolation
2. behavioral isolation
3. temoral isolation
4. mechanical isolation
5. gametic isolation
Postzygotic barriers
prevent hybrid zygote from developing into a viable adult
1. reduced hybrid viability
2. Reduced hybrid fertility
3. Hybrid breakdown
ecological species concept
defines a species in terms of its niche
pluralistic species concept
the factors that are most important for the cohesion of individuals as a species vary
morphological species concept
characterizes species by their unique sets of structural features
geneaolgical species concept
organisms with a unique genetic history
sympatric speciation
speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations
allopatric speciation
speciation takes place in pops. in different geographic regions
adaptive radiation
many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor
polyploidy
a mutation that results in extra sets of chromosomes
autopolyploid
individual that has more than 2 chromosome sets all derived from a single species
allopolyploid
an individual that has more than 2 chromosome sets derived from two different species
exaptations
structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for another function
homeotic genes
determine basic features