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47 Cards in this Set

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descent
genetic transmission in populations of organisms through time
fact
an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed
law
a descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances
theory
a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses
hypothesis
a testable statement about the natural world that can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations
Problems for naturalists
1. explain fossils
2. diversity of animals
3. adaptation of animals
Niels Stensen
rocks originally formed as soft muddy sediments in water, fossil shells were hard

noticed layering in rocks, sedimentation had occurred in episodes

deposits were made horizontally and that the tilted appearance reflects changes since the original deposition
John Woodward
Crust of the Earth did not collapse in ruins in the great flood but was dissolved in floodwaters. Particles settled out to form rock strata in order of their specific gravity. All fossils were from before the flood.
John Ray
extinct organisms are not compatible with the providence of God

world was older than thought
Linnaeus
Species –similar individuals bounded together by reproduction and originally descended from a single set of parents created by God

natural classification
Class, Order, Genus, and Species
Buffon
study of organisms in natural enviroment

living world is divided into different regions and introduced the concept of regional floras and faunas

Epochs of Nature
Epochs of Nature
by: Buffon

1) earth began as a molten matter ejected from the sun

2) earth cooled and developed a solid outer crust

3) cooled to point where water could condense yielding a worldwide ocean and abundant marine life as seen in sedimentary rocks

4) and 5) as ocean levels fell, life began on land

6) earth cooled restricting migration of animals between continents

7) age of man
Werner
classification of rocks, primary-quaternary

oceans
rocks formed
drop in sea level
ocean dropped, earth did not rise
Hutton
fossils horizontally distributed
then tilted
then erosion and sunk in sea
repeats
Cuvier
correlation of parts
most important parts are least modified
progressive-simpler to more complex beings
species that look extinct have just not been found yet
species became extinct due to natural disasters
Erasmus Darwin
variation within species
changes driven by necessities
necessities interact with variation to produce improvment of species
Lamarck
changes in animal brought about by changes in environment (acquired characteristics)
NO EXTINCTION, just evolved into newer species
Species that appear extinct have just not been found yet
Lyell
natural disasters of today were natural disasters of past
species are well adapted to a given place in nature
gradual turnover in species
Darwin
natural selection
excess fecundity
competition
believes in extinction
older the fossil, less similar to living form
species evolve and then spread out to evolve more
Wallace
related species are found near each other
related species are often found on opposite sides of a geographic barrier
gradual change in species
every species develops from a pre-existing species
gene
a stretch of DNA that codes for a specific RNA or protein product
allele
version of the same gene that differs in its base sequence
point mutations
single base substitution in DNA
transition mutation
purine for purine, pyrimidine for pyrimidine
transversion
purie for pyrimidine, or reverse
silent substitutions
point mutations that do not change amingo acid sequence
replacement substitutions
mutations that result in amino acid change
allozyme
different enzyme
isozyme
distinct electrophoretic form of an enzyme
polymorphism
existence within a population of two or more alleles for a given locus
heterozygosity
the condition of having more than one allele at a locus in an individual
microevolution
genetic change within populations
genotype
genetic constitution of an organism
phenotype
physical or biochemical attributes of an organism
what causes allele frequencies to change?
drift
mutation
selection
migration
inbreeding
related individuals of similar genotype mate preferentially with each other
inbreeding depression
deleterious recessive alleles become homozygous in increasing frequency
random genetic drift
variable sampling of the gene pool each generation
selection
composite forces that limit reproductive success of a genotype
balancing selection
maintenance of polymorphism
frequency dependent selection
fitness of a genotype depends on genotype frequencies in the population
Inverse frequency dependent selection
the rarer the phenotype is in the population the greater the fitness
Positive frequency dependent selection
the more common the phenotype is in the population the greater the fitness
linkage disequilibrium
non-random association of alleles from different loci in a population
linkage equilibrium
random association of alleles from different loci in a population
causes of linkage disequilibrium
no recombinaion
drift
inbreeding
selection
Muller's ratchet
results in chance loss of chromosomes with the fewest deleterious mutations, in asexual, results in extinction