Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/13

Click to flip

13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Apomorphy
An apomorphy is a new genetic characteristic to a clade. Feathers are an apomorphy for birds.
Synapomorphy
an apomorphy shared by two or more species or clades.
Autapomorphy
a derived character state unique to a particular taxon.
Plesiomorphy
a character state already present in the ancestral species of a group under study.
Outgroup
One or more taxa assumed to be phylogenetically outside the ingroup that are used as a rooting point of a phylogenetic tree and may be used to assign the direction of change to character-state transformations.
Ingroup
those of taxa of primary interest in a particular study
How are speciation events represented?
they are represented by the branching sequence of the tree
Reticulate Evolution
the pattern of evolution resulting from recombinational speciation, other diploid hybrid speciation, or allopolyploid speciation
Name the three domains of life
Archea, Eukaria, bacteria
What is the most impressive feature of the lineages of the Archea
Their habitat
Hypotheses
: A phylogenetic tree is a summary of hypothesis about the sequence of speciation.
Relatedness of Taxa
Trees indicate which taxa are more closely or distantly related.
Traits, characters, character state, homologous character state
Logic for estimating evolutionary relationships "is simple": The most closely related taxa should have the most traits in common.
Character: independent, heritable, variable among the taxa under study, homologous.
Character states: variation or alternate forms of a character.
Similarity: homologous or nonhomologous;