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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
evolution
process that transforms life on earth over periods of time.
Catastophism
a catastrophe destroyed various life forms at different times in history.
Gradualism
change in the cumulative product of slow continous natural occurences.
uniformitarianism
the same processes that are acting today
decent with modification
Darwin viewed evolution as a tree with different species branching off of eariler species.
Natural selection
how things change.
population genetics
looks at variation w/in populations and recognizes quantitive traits, changed the view of evolution.
modern synthesis
modern view of evolution using the ideas of many fields.
gene pool
includes all of the genes at anyone time.
microevolution
evolution in a specific gene pool
genetic drift
smaller the sample the greater the chance of deviations from the expected result.
Bottleneck effect
anything that destroys a large number of population leaving a population with different genetic frequencies
founder effect
results when a small poulation colonizes individuals
mutation
a change in all alleles will immediatly change the gene pool
polymorphism
2 or more forms of descrete character in population.
geographical variation
differences in populations due to environmental factor(s?)
cline
graded change in some trait along a geographic axis
diploidy
having 2 forms of a trait.
balanced polymorphism
the selection for variation of some genes
heterozygote advantage
hetro. form has a better chance of survival than HD and HR
hybrid vigor
some hybrids survive better than the inbred stock probably due to heterozygote adbantage and segregation of harmful recessive alleles.?????
Neutral variation
variation that does not give a selective advantage or disadvantage.
Linnaeus did what?
organized living things as a natural theologian- taxonomy- hierachy ladder
what did Cuvier do?
developed paleontology- advocated catastrophism.
what about Hutton? what did he do?
introduced gradualism
How bout that Lamarck?
suggested use and disuse inheritance and acquired characteristics.
Darwin?
born in England in 1809 rode the Beagle to Galapagos Islands, studied 13 different species of finches, wrote "Origin of Natural Selection"
Wallace?
sent Darwin a theory almost identical to his own
Mayr?
Broke down Sir Darwin's theory
what was natural theology trying to prove?
The idea that things were created to fit into their environment
SHORT ANSWER
What are the 3 subtleties of natural selection?
individuals don't evolve, it can amplify or diminish variations, specifics depend on situation.
State the Hardy-Weinberg theorem
The frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a poulations gene pool remain constant over the generation unless acted upon by agents other that sexual recombination.
what is the Hardy- Weinberg equation? need to know how to use
p+q=1 p2+2pq=q2=1
If the frequences of Hardy-Weinberg change, what does that mean?
Evolution has occured
SHORT ANSWER
what are the 5 things that are necessary to maintain Hardy-Weinberg?
1. Large population
2. isolated population
3. no net mutations
4. random mating
5. no natural selection
of the in #7 which one adapts organisms to a specific environment?
natural selection
how is variation measure?
by the percentage of loci
gene flow
changes in frequencies due to migration of fertile individuals
what are the observations and inferences of Dawin's theory?
ob.1- all species have great potential for fertility and would grow exponentually if all offspring survived. ob2. tend to remain stable in size ob.3 environmental resources are limited. Inference-1 The Large populations have for survival only a fraction survive. ob.4 individuals vary extensively in their characteristics ob.5 much of this variation is inheritable. Infrence 2- Survival in the struggle depends on heredity and the best fit likely leave more offspring. Inference3. this unequalability to survive will eventually change the population.