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37 Cards in this Set
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FIELD TAGS

WITHIN BRACKETS ABREVIATIONS FOR SEARCH CATEGORIES


MeSH INDEXERS MUST:

 Have at least a bacelor's degree in biomedical science
 reading in one or more foreign language  special training in MEDLINE indexing 

STATISTICS ARE TO SAMPLES AS A _______ IS TO A POPULATION

PARAMATER


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

A TREATMENT OR INTERVENTION, PRECEDE THE DEPENDENT IN TIME


DESCRIPTIVE STASTICS SUMMARIZE DATA BUT CAN NOT BE USED TO ________

TEST A HYPOTHESES


VARIABILITY

EXTENT VALUES ARE SPREAD ABOVE AND BELOW THE MIDDLE, a.k.a. DISPERSION


MODE:

MOST FREQUENT OCCURING VALUE


MEDIAN:

THE MIDDLE VALUE (NOT AVERAGE)


LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT: NOIR

NOMINAL, ORDINAL, INTERVAL, RATIO


NOMINAL
counting 
CODED BY NUMBER, NAME, OR LETTER
NO ORDER ex: gender (male or female) Mode 

ORDINAL
< > 
LIKE NOMINAL BUT ORDERED BY RANK  MORE OR LESS BUT NO TRUE VALUE OF VARIABILITY
ex: military rank (lieutenant, captain...) Median 

INTERVAL
+  
MEASURES ORDERED WITH EQUAL INTERVALS  NO TRUE ZERO
ex: fahrenheit symetrical Mean 

RATIO
+  x / 
EQUAL INTERVALS  TRUE ZERO
ex: ROM, lifting capacity (15kg, or 30kg) symetrical Mean 

Normal curve AREA

68.3% +/ 1SD
95.5% +/ 2SD 

S'(2)
VARIANCE 
MEASURE OF SPREAD


ZSCORE
Z=(xu)/sigma x=raw score, u=mean, sigma=SD 
The number of SDs above or below the mean


ztable

portion of the area under the curve for different values of z


INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

DATA MAKE INFERECES ABOUT POPULATIONS, TAKE MANY MEANS AND THEN TAKE A MEAN OF THE MEANS


SAMPLE MEAN IS

AN ESTIMATE OR POINT ESTIMATE


STANDARD ERROR OF MEAN = SEm
lower the better 
SEm = SD/square root of (n)


SEm is high when____

SD is large or sample is too small


CONFIDENCE INTERVAL
typical 95% 
range likely to contain population mean
within 95% 

calculate CI range

zscore @95% multiply by SEm
+/ product to sample mean for limits 

SIZE OF CI _____

INDIRECT W/ SAMPLE SIZE
SMALL SAMPLE  LARGE CI (BAD) 

null Hypothesis testing

H(null) either accepted or rejected


H(null) accepted

no difference between two groups


H(null) rejected if outside CI

accept H1  95% that difference is true


alpha error (type 1)

reject H(null) = accept H1 (but false difference)


beta error (type 2)

accept H(null) = reject H1 (but true difference)


as alpha <0.05 =

type 1 decreases = type 2 increases


Power = 1beta

probability of correctly rejecting a false H(null)


standard power value

0.80


if value of difference is w/in CI then

H(null) should not be rejected = no statistical difference


ttest

find whether the means of two groups are statiscally different


onetailed or twotailed

two is better because splits alpha between two tails


t =

difference between the group means/variability of the data


big t =

small pvalue & statistically significant
