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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
This is a German term that means, literally, “the politics of reality” or “reality
politics.” It was a rejection of the idealism that had characterized the period from 1815 to 1848,
and it engaged in hard-edged politics and diplomacy to achieve results. It is most often
associated with Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia.
Otto von Bismarck
This man was the chancellor of Prussia. He engineered the unification of
Germany, and between 1866 and 1871 most of the German-speaking states in Europe became
part of the newly united Germany. He also brought Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy into an
alliance known as the Triple Alliance in 1882, and this was one of the contributing factors that
led to World War I.
Napoleon III
This man was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. He served as president of the
Second French Republic from 1848 until 1852, and he became the emperor from 1852 until
1871 in what was called the Second French Empire.
Paris Commune (II)
This was a revolutionary body that took control of Paris in the wake of
the Franco-Prussian War. It was suppressed by the provisional government under Adolph
Seven Weeks War
This was a short war between Prussia and Austria in 1866 over the
Schleswig-Holstein question. Otto von Bismarck skillfully used it to unite the northern German
principalities into a single political union under Prussian leadership.
Camillo Cavour
This man was the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia and the architect of
Italian unification from the 1850s until the 1860s.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
This man was an Italian nationalist who led a group known as the Red
Shirts. During the wars to unify Italy, he conquered the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, and while he
wanted an Italian republic he acceded to the idea of Italy being united under King Victor
Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia.
This was one of the reforms of Czar Alexander II. These consisted of which were
local provincial councils elected by the people that dealt with local governmental issues such as
roads and schools.
These were radicals, particularly in Russia, who believed in nothing but science and
rejected traditional society and culture.
These were radicals, particularly in Russia, who believed that all government
should be abolished. In Russia, Mikhail Bakunin was the principal leader of this group
These were Russian radicals who believed that Russia’s backward agricultural
society provided the basis for creating a utopian socialist society based upon communal
agriculture. Their principal leader was Alexander Herzen.
Vladimir Lenin
This man was the leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Communist
Party. He was the architect of the October Revolution in 1917.
Fabian Society
This was a labor organization founded in London 1884. It sought to address
the problems of industrial workers peacefully through government action. It was the basis for
the British Labour Party, which was founded in 1893.
Second International
This was a convention of roughly four hundred socialists and
communists in Paris in 1889. Marxism was adopted as the official theory of these various
groups, and this did much to consolidate the hold of Marxism over socialist thinking in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Labor Unions
These emerged in Europe during the 1880s. They were organized groups of
industrial workers who sought to bargain collectively with employers.
Edward Manet
This man was the founder of the Impressionist school of art and the first real
impressionist artist. He trained many later Impressionist artists.
Vincent Van Gogh
This artist was the first real Post-Impressionist artists who rendered
incredible landscapes and other paintings
Richard Wagner
This man was a great German nationalist musical composer. One of his
greatest works is Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Auguste Comte
This was a French social scientist who established the discipline of
sociology. He also developed a method known as positivism, which required studying human
society in a scientific manner by gathering and analyzing empirical data.
This was a method developed by Auguste Comte for the study of sociology. It
required sociologists to study human society in a scientific manner by gathering and analyzing
empirical data.
Emile Durkheim
This man was a French scholar who more firmly established the discipline of
sociology in 1895 by publishing his important work Rules of the Sociological Method. That
same year, he also founded the first department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux.
Charles Darwin
This British naturalist developed the Theory of Natural Selection, which he
first described in his 1859 book Origin of Species. He believed that this was the mechanism
that drove biological evolution.
Herbert Spencer
This British thinker was an important figure within the intellectual movement
known as Social Darwinism. He coined the phrase “survival of the fittest,” and he believed that
the rich had the means to survive in society while the poor did not. He opposed the idea of
charity to help the poor because it violated the natural order.
Karl Marx
This German philosopher developed what was known as dialectical materialism.
This was a process by which competing economic classes developed throughout history. He
believed that after the final battle between the bourgeoisie and proletariats, industrial capitalism
would be smashed and a new communist society would emerge in industrialized countries
Friedrich Nietzsche
This German philosopher was the foremost figure in the intellectual
movement known as irrationalism. He was violently anti-Christian, and he rejected science as a
means to attain human happiness. He believed only a small number of “supermen” had the “will
to power” and the ability to dominate the rest of mankind. He rejected both liberal democracy
and socialism since they assumed equality between all people.
Sigmund Freud
This Austrian psychologist developed a theory called the Oedipus Complex.
He believed that the unconscious mind was the seat of irrational sexual desires that are
manifested during infancy and that are based upon sexual attraction to the parent of the
opposite sex.
Pablo Picasso
This Spanish artist developed an artistic style known as cubism. It used
straight lines, sharp corners, and odd proportions in order to depict the human form in an
irrational manner.
This was a theory developed by Albert Einstein that was expressed in the equation
E=mc2. This means “energy equals mass times the speed of light squared,” and this can be
further defined as meaning that time and space are the same, as are matter and energy.
Albert Einstein
This German-born physicist developed the Theory of Relativity, which he
expressed using the equation E=mc2. This means “energy equals mass times the speed of light
squared,” and this can be further defined as meaning that time and space are the same, as are
matter and energy.
Process Theology
This was a type of theology developed by the mathematician and physicist
Alfred North Whitehead. This branch of theology proposed that God is the animating force in
the universe, and because the universe is always expanding and changing, God is also in the
process of changing and thus does not know what the future will bring
Alfred North Whitehead
This British mathematician and physicist developed what was known
as process theology. This branch of theology proposes that God is the animating force in the
universe, and because the universe is always expanding and changing, God is also in the
process of changing and thus does not know what the future will bring.
This was a pseudo-scientific theory that swept Western Europe in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It basically stated that Jews were of Semitic stock,
which was racially interior to European racial stocks
Blood Libel
This was a myth in Europe during the Middle Ages that Jews used the blood of
Christian children for ritual purposes.
Dreyfus Affair
This was an affair in France in 1894 where a Jewish member of the French
general staff was wrongly accused of passing secrets to the Germans. It is believed he was
framed and punished only because he was Jewish.
This was a traditional Jewish village in the Pale and other parts of East Europe. It
made the integration and assimilation of East European Jews less likely than in West Europe.
Theodore Herzl
This man was the founder of the Zionist movement, which advocated
European Jews establishing a home for themselves in the Middle East.
This was European Jewish nationalist movement that sought a homeland for
Europe’s Jews in the Middle East.
Nuremberg Laws
These laws were passed in 1935 and denied German Jews of their basic
civil rights. They were stripped of their German citizenship, were denied employment in
government or the military, and had to be segregated in public places.
This was a series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany in 1938 in which Jewish
businesses and synagogues were destroyed. Many Jews were assaulted and lost their lives,
and afterward many fled Germany.
Triple Alliance
This was an alliance put together by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in
1882 that included Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary.
Triple Entente
This was an alliance between France, Great Britain, and Russia. It was
created between 1894 and 1907 by series of agreements and understandings between the
three countries.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
This man was the crown prince of Austria-Hungary. The
assassination of him and his wife in Sarajevo in 1914 was the spark that led to World War I.
Versailles Conference
This was the treaty conference held in 1919 by the victorious Allies of
World War I. It was attended by the leaders of Great Britain, France, Italy, and the United
States. The principal treaty produced at this conference (the Versailles Treaty) was designed to
punish Germany.
Fourteen Points
These were written by the United States President Woodrow Wilson and
presented at the Versailles Conference in 1919. These outlined Wilson’s plan to preserve peace
in Europe and included an end to secret treaties, recognizing the right to self-government for the
new countries that had emerged from the old European empires, and free navigation of the
Czar Nicholas II
This man was the last member of the Romanov family to rule Russia. He
abdicated in 1917 due to the fact that Russia was losing its war against Germany and Austria
and was sinking into anarchy
Alexander Kerensky
After Czar Nicholas II abdicated in 1917, this man was the leader of the
Liberal Government, which served as a provisional government in Russia until it was forced to
disband after the Bolsheviks seized power.
This is a Russian word that means “councils.” During World War I, as Russia fell into
anarchy, the common people of Russia (particularly workers and soldiers) began to form
councils to fill the vacuum left by the collapse of central authority.
These were the members of the majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic
Workers Party (later called the Russian Communist Party), and they were led by Vladimir Lenin.
Vladimir Lenin
This man was the leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Communist
Party. He was the architect of the October Revolution in 1917
Leon Trotsky
This man was number two in the Soviet Union after Lenin. He was the
architect of the Red Army and its victory during the Russian Civil War.
October Revolution
This was the 1917 revolution in Russia that occurred when the
Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin seized power in a coup and took power from the Liberal
Government under Alexander Kerensky.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This was the treaty that the Bolsheviks signed along with Germany
and Austria-Hungary in 1918. This treaty allowed Russia to leave the war, but it had to give up
its western non-Russian speaking territories such as Finland, part of Poland, the Baltic states,
and Bessarabia.
Constituent Assembly
This was the new body that was supposed to rule Russia. Elections
were held in November 1917, but when the body met in January 1918, Vladimir Lenin let it meet
for one day before he disbanded it.
White Army
During the Russian Civil War, this was the army composed of various anti-
Bolshevik and communist forces such as members of the Social Revolutionary Party and army
units loyal to the czar.
Red Army
During the Russian Civil War, this was the army put together by Leon Trotsky to
preserve the Bolshevik Revolution and defeat those forces that tried to take away the
communists’ hold on power.
Benito Mussolini
This man was the creator of the Italian Fascist Party. He became prime
minister of Italy in 1922 and slowly consolidated his power between 1925 and 1926 until he was
firmly in control of the government. His title was Duce, or “leader.”
Facist Party
This was the party founded by Benito Mussolini in Italy after World War I. Its
name became the label for all similar types of governments that emerged in Europe after World
War I.
Adolf Hitler
This man was the founder of the National Social German Workers Party (also
known as the Nazi Party). He became the German chancellor in 1933, and that same year he
was given dictatorial control over the government.
Weimar Republic
This was the name of the ineffectual democratic republic that ruled
Germany from 1919 to 1933.
Beer Hall Putsch
This was a failed attempt by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party to take over the
government of Bavaria in 1923.
Mein Kampf
This book was written by Adolf Hitler during his year in prison from 1924 to 1925,
and it outlined his plans to take over Germany and make it a strong, revitalized fascist state.
Joseph Goebbels
This man was Adolf Hitler’s minister of propaganda. It was his job to
insure the German people were properly informed about the Nazi Party’s ideas and
Enabling Act
This was an act that was passed by the German Reichstag in 1933 that gave
Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers so he could deal with the “crisis” created by the burning of the
Reichstag building. Hitler used this act to arrest political opponents and create a one-party