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5 Cards in this Set

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1. How did the balance of power within revolutionary France shift to the right during the winter of 1794/95?
1. The balance of power shifted toward the right on the political spectrum. The earlier revolutionary tide subsided with new laws set in place by the Convention. These new laws forbade harsh treatment of nobles and clergymen, thereby instituting a new and more moderate tone to the Revolution (and in some ways, ending it, see p. 278). This moderate turn, however, was accompanied with a backlash against the left, primarily against the Montagnards. The violent turn to the right was also epitomized through the violent mobs of middle class youth that took to the streets as the sans-culottes had previously. Many Jacobins who had supervised and coordinated the Terror were, if lucky, put on trial. Many of these men that faced trial and the rest who did not, were either imprisoned or massacred, sometimes in the hundreds. In the French provinces, particularly the southern provinces where the backlash was extremely strong, this period came to be known as the White Terror (pp. 271-272).
2. How did the sans-culottes try to regain control of the Convention? Why were their efforts unsuccessful?
2. The sans-culottes by this time (April 1795) lacked effective leaders but, nevertheless, attempted to regain power through storming the Convention on a number of occasions. Their demands were to implement the older Constitution of 1793, first instituted by the Montagnards as well as for a lowering of food prices. The Convention, however, was not intimidated and was protected by the National Guard, mostly composed of the middle class. After this initial march on the Convention was easily struck down, sans-culotte leaders were arrested and fired from their occupations (p.274). A few weeks later the Parisian sans-culottes made another attempt to force the Convention to meet their demands, but were again repulsed due to lack of effective leadership. Later still, on May 20 a massive march by the sans-culotte convened and accompanied by three sections of the National Guard (without their officers). The march entered the hall of the Assembly by bursting open the doors. This party did not leave until forced by armed men hired by the Convention. Within minutes, a renewed and more hostile assault was made. This lasted for several hours whereupon some men were killed. The san-culottes were removed in the end. Then next day, another demonstration was implemented, this time with a more organized and highly armed group of sans-culottes. This demonstration ended in peace when men from both sides abandoned their posts at being upset with the prospect of killing their fellow citizens. After this last demonstration 3,000 suspects were rounded up placed in jail (though most were later released) (pp. 274-279). The sans-culottes failed, it seems, mostly due to lack of leadership and organization.
3. How did royalists attempt to re-establish the monarchy under Louis XVIII? Why did their efforts fail?
3. The Royalist plan to reinstitute the monarchy was multi-pronged: the Prince de Conde, father of the Duc de Bourbon, who had fought against the Revolution with the Austrians, was to advance a royalist army from the east. Another insurrection in the south was to be provoked. General Charles Picheguru, commander of the Rhine Army was to lead this insurrection. Another insurrection led by émigrés and sponsored by the British, were to link up with Chouans in the north-west. The Royalist plan failed because General Picheguru proved unreliable, the plans in the south were discovered and thwarted, and the Chouans in the end lacked the courage to fight.
4. What were the major provisions of the new government under the Constitution of the Year Three?
4. The major provisions of the new Constitution were: Legislative power was to be entrusted to two Councils: a Council of Five Hundred who had the right to initiate laws, and a Council of Ancients of two hundred and fifty members, who were to approve or veto the proposed laws. A third of each Council were required to retire each year. Executive power was granted to the Directory of five members who were appointed by the Council of 500. It was decided that 2/3 (known as the law of 2/3) of the new deputies were to be chosen from members of the Convention (p. 282).
5. Describe Napoleon Bonaparte’s rise to power.
5. Royalists didn’t like this law because it assured a more moderate form of government (aka, not entirely anti-revolutionary) and attempted another insurrection. Napoleon was called in to quell the insurrection. Napoleon was already well known for his artillery skill at the battle of Toulon and his fast rise in rank (285). Napoleon’s power rose even more after he helped defeat the insurrectionary forces.