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147 Cards in this Set

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Eastern Europe between 1648-1700: political systems that failed to become more modern might_________________.
cease to exist
Most parts of Eastern Europe belonged to one of 3 old fashioned political organizations:________________, ________________,and the ________________.
Holy Roman Empire, Republic of Poland, Ottoman Turks
Their place would be taken by_______, ________, and________.
Prussia, Austria, Russia
What was the East-West line?
Elbe river through Bohemian Mountains to the Adriatic Sea.
What happened to the peasants during the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries in Eastern Europe?
They increasingly lost their freedom.
What was uncompensated compulsory labor paid by the serfs to their lord referred to as?
Robot
What were three similarities between the Holy Roman Empire, Turkey, and Poland?
Lacked sufficient systems of administration and government; compared to France, they were out of date; made up of diverse ethnic and language groups
What did the Holy Roman Empire show no intentions for since the Middle Ages?
expansionist tendencies
After the__________________ Germany fell increasingly out of step with the rest of Europe.
Thirty Years' War
What caused Germany to fall increasingly out of step with the rest of Europe?
no colonies; no stock exchange; a variety of coinage, tariffs, tolls, even calendars
Who composed highly spiritual music in a time of rational rebellion?
J.S. Bach
There were how many states?
300-2000, depending on who counted
What were "Knights of Empire" in south Germany?
private persons enjoying sovereign status
What was the Golden Bull of 1356?
Seven electrons of the Holy Roman Empire established
What years were Bavaria and Hanover added to the electors?
Bavaria: 1648; Hanover: 1700
Why were small states able to exist beside large states without serious fear of losing their independence?
Because most Germans glad to keep this way of life
________________ lost all authority after the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Imperial Diet
What could Protestants and Catholics demand after 1648?
"ius eundi in partes" or "right of sitting apart" in imperial diet
_________________ began in 1663 to consider measures against the Turks- never dismissed- did nothing.
"perpetual diet" of Regensburg
How did ambitious rulers extend their power?
marriage and inheritance
What is an example of marriage extending power?
Guelph family ruling in Hanover inherited the throne of England
Austria would emerge after 1700 from a random collection of territories called the_________________.
House of Habsburg
Prussia emerged from the_________________________.
House of Brandenburg or Hohenzollern
Why was Poland called a republic around 1650?
because its king was elected
Political classes in the Republic of Poland took pride in their ______________________.
constitutional liberties
What were the two main parts the Polish state was made up of?
Polish proper in the west; Lithuania in the east
There was no_______________ in the Republic of Poland.
national middle class
What was the official language of the Republic of Poland?
Latin
What was the leading religion in the Republic of Poland?
Catholicism
The aristocracy was called _____________, made up 8% of the population.
szlachta
What was the main weakness of the szlachta?
absence of a powerful central authority
What were "Polish liberties"?
a fierce suspicion of central authority and foreign interference
Why was there only two Polish kings of Poland from 1572 to 1795?
because they were too suspicious of their own number
_______________________ came to Poland from England in 1200's.
Ashkenazic Jewry
liberum veto or __________; "exploding the diet"
free veto
Who already talked of dismantling Poland?
Berlin and Moscow
Who broke off on their own?
Poles and East Prussia
The Ottoman state was larger than either the _________________or the ___________________, and in the _________ century, was more solidly organized.
Holy roman Empire, Republic of Poland, seventeenth
What did the Ottoman Empire besiege in 1529?
Vienna
When was the height of the Empire?
1550
Why was 1550 the height of the Ottoman Empire?
because of military skill and janissaries
What were Janissaries?
a member of a group of elite, highly loyal supporters
What was the law in the Ottoman Empire?
Koran
What was the government based on?
religious groupings
Who fared better in the empire than Muslims would have fared in Christendom?
Christians
What was the Christian force sponsored by?
Pope Innocent XI
What was the Christian force made up of?
Poles, Austrians, and Germans
who was Prince Eugene of Savoy?
founder of the modern Austrian state, both a brilliant military leader and administrator, reformed the supply, equipment, training, and command of the Habsburg forces
What came from Eugene fighting against Spain, France and the Turks?
Everything that Austria got from France through the Treaty of Utrecht
What happened in the Battle of Zenta?
Prince Eugene and the Austrian drove the Turks out of Hungary
What did the Battle of Zenta result of?
Peace of Karlowitz
What was the Peace of Karlowitz (1699)?
Turks gave up most of Hungary along with Transylvania and Croatia to the Habsburgs.
What was the Battle of Blenheim?
in 1704, Eugene's greatest victory (along with J. Churchill, Winston's relative)
What was the Treaty of Rastadt (1714)?
outcome of War of Spanish succession annexed Spanish Netherlands with Milan and Naples
What was the Peace of Belgrade (1739)?
between Austrians and Turks, created the frontier, which on the Austrian side, remained unchanged until the twentieth century
What type of empire was the Austrian Empire?
international, based on a cosmopolitan aristocracy of landowners who felt close to each other rather than to their own laboring class
What did the Austrian Empire include?
Belgium, parts of Italy, Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Croatia
No overall ___________; only landlords represented in local________.
Diet, diets
What was the outcome of the Battle of White Mountain in 1620?
Czech's conquered by Austrians
Princes of the Holy Roman Empire had the of ________________.
ius reformandi
What is ius reformandi?
the right to reform religion on his own estates
What religion did the Turks favor?
Protestantism
Why did the Turks favor Protestantism?
because they would not be attached to the Habsburg king
What was the first step by Austria in Hungary following reconquest from the Turks?
to repress Protestantism
__________ veterans encouraged to settle in Hungary.
German
Who was given privileges in Hungary?
Croats
_______ imported from across the Danube so an already heterogeneous society became more so.
Serbs
Who rebelled against Habsburgs?
Hungarians
Who received help from Louis XIV, but crushed by 1711?
Prince Francis Rakoczy
Who did Marie Theresa succeed in 1740?
Charles VI (1711-1740) and his Pragmatic Sanction
What did Sweden and Prussia do to defeat their larger neighbors?
They had well trained, disciplined armies equipped and ably commanded and economically employed
Who were Sweden's rulers between 1697 and 1718?
Gustavus Adolphus (1697-1718, queen Christina (1632-1654), and Charles XII (1697-1718)
What was Gustavus' great folly?
the Vasa, sank in 1628
What were the advantages of Sweden's Empire?
hereditary ruler, free from control by the estates, craftsmen and experts brought in from the west, subsidized war industries, novel weapons, organization, tactics
Why was the South coast of the Baltic, where Prussia was to arise, an unpromising site for the creation of a strong political power?
thinly populated, poor soil, no mineral resources
Included Pomerania, and electoral _________________, founded in the Middle Ages as a "mark" or "march" of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the _____________ by 1415, and part of the lands of the _________________.
margravate of Brandenburg, Hohenzollerns, Teutonic Knights
What did the Elector of Brandenburg inherit in 1618?
the duchy of Prussia
What was all Germany east of Elbe?
medieval conquest by German peoples
What was German "Drang nach Osten"?
"drive east"
What began to appear in the seventeenth century when a number of territories came together in the hands of the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg?
modern Prussia
What did it receive from the Peace of Westphalia in 1648?
further Pomerania
What was the Long range policy?
connect the three separate territories- Brandenburg, East Prussia, and a mass near the Rhine
Who was Frederick William (1640-1688)?
the great Elector-put his main reliance on a competent army
What was the main objective of the diplomatic maneuver?
being on the right side in the balance of power
What was Frederick William allowed to do in exchange for providing the emperor with 8,000 troops in preparation for the War of Spanish Succession?
to call himself king in Prussia in 1701
What was developed to meet the needs of the army in Prussia?
institutions of civilian government
Where did half of Prussian ruler's income come from?
crown domains, consisting of manors and other productive enterprises owned and administered by the state
What did crown domains allow rulers to do?
to pay the whole cost of civil govn. from their own income
___________ grew up under ________________ rather than by venturesome business class.
Economic life, government sponsorship
What had a profound effect on the social development and class structure in Prussia?
army
Who made up most of the officer class while in France?
Junker landlords, few nobles
Emphasis on _______, _______, ________, and ________.
duty, obedience, service, sacrifice
What did legislation do to preserve the officer class?
forbade the sale of noble lands to non-nobles
Who was Frederick I (1701-1713)?
the first "king"
What happened under Frederick William I (1713-1740)?
peculiar features hardened under this monarch
What did Frederick II The Great (1740-1786) do?
raised army from 85, 000 to 200, 000
What did Frederick II The Great do with the army?
established canton system of recruiting- each regiment had a particular district or canton assigned to it as a source
What did Frederick II The Great ignore when he invaded Silesia with the death of Charles VI>
the Pragmatic Sanction
What happened when Frederick II The Great invaded Silesia?
it doubled Prussia's population to 6 million, adding valuable industries, and establishing Prussia as a great power
What happened to the old tsardom of Muscovy after 1650?
it turned into modern Russia
Why had Russia not been part of the general development of Europe before 1650?
because of the predominance of the Greek Orthodox religion; Mongol invasions and occupation (1240-1480); lack of warm-water ports
What are similarities between Prussia and Russia?
state rose primarily as a means of supporting a modern day army, neither had a native commercial class, no natural frontiers, autocratic government with landlord class impressed into state service, imported scientific, technical, and military knowledge
What did Tarters, Cossacks, White Russians, Little Russians have in common?
not tied to the west, strong eastern personality
What were the strongest autocracies by 1500 in Eastern Europe?
Moscovy and the Ottoman Empire
Who did the Great Russians start trade with in 1553?
England through Archangel
Who was Ivan the Terrible (1553-1584)?
the first grand duke of Muscovy to assume the title of tsar
Who was in power during the Time of troubles (1604-1613)?
Michael Romanov
What was the main social development of the seventeenth century in Russia?
sinking of the peasants into serfdom
____ owned most mines and industries.
tsar
_____________ leads a peasant uprising in 1667- executed in 1671.
Stephen Razin
What happened to the peasants in Russia?
put outside the protection of the law, also estranged from established religion
______________ religion became hardly more than a department of the tsar.
Russian Orthodox
What was established in 1589 and separated from Constantinople?
Patriarch
Who rebelled against reforms of 1650?
Old Believers
What did Peter replace the Patriarch with?
Procurator of the Holy Synod
How long did Peter reign in Russia for?
1682-1725
What was Peter's Europeanization or westernization of Russia considered?
a social revolution
When did Peter visit Europe?
1697-98
What did Peter want to do in Europe?
he recruited almost 1,000 experts in order to create an army and state that could stand against the West; territorial expansion a priority
What were the "Windows on the West"?
Baltic and Black Seas; warm-water ports
What was the Battle of Nava (1700)?
40,000 Russians lost to 8,000 Swedes and Charles XII
What was the Battle of Poltava (1709)
Russians defeat the Swedes and Charles XII
What was the Great Northern War(1709-1721)
with Sweden; Treaty of Nystadt (1721)
What was the Streltsi
elite of the old army, a kind of Moscow guard, composed of politically active nobles, rebelled in 1698, liquidated by Peter and he then built his army from the ground up
What were the characteristics of the Russian Empire?
loose and heterogeneous, held together by military force
What was St. Petersburg?
built from the ground up, nobles obliged to settle there, became the center of cultural and economic life, stimulate westernization
How did Peter the Great make internal changes to satisfy the city and govt. need for money?
imposed taxes on almost everything- beards, coffins, cellars, hats
Established____________________ like Colbert's in France to raise revenues and stimulate production
mercantilistic policies
What did Peter's efforts do?
inadvertently widened the gap between Russia and Europe
What did the new administrational system do?
to oversee taxes, recruiting, economics, serf hunting, internal, National assembly. the Duma disappeared along with local self-government
How did Peter's centralized absolutism differ from the west?
it lacked legal regularity
All landowning aristocrats required to serve in ______________.
state service
What was the status in "state service" based on?
rank in the system; non-nobles could rise to great status while many nobles sunk
How was the character of Russia formed?
by the methods used by Peter to impose modernity
Why did Peter kill his own son Alexis?
because Alexis threatened to revive the old custom when Peter died
What were the results of Peter's Revolution?
fastened autocracy, serfdom, bureaucracy more firmly
What were the results of Europeanization?
only reached upper classes; peasant masses remained outside system, exploited, estranged
What did Peter establish?
ten territorial governments or guberni (dependent on Peter)- a Latin word, not Slavic, imitating the West
What was Europe's largest state in the eighteenth century?
Poland
What was Poland an example of?
an older political structure which failed to develop modern organs of government, also undermined by constant meddling by Russia
Who was John Sobieski?
King of Poland (1674-1696) greatly contributed to the relief of Vienna under siege by the Turks
What was the War of Polish Succession (1733)?
European states fighting over the successor to the Polish crown
Why did Prussia and Austria propose the first partition in 1772?
because they wanted to keep the balance of power as Russia was overwhelming Turkey in war.
What was the outcome of this partition?
Austria took a Galacia in the south, Prussia took West Prussia realizing an old ambition
What was the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji?
Turks, defeated by the Russians, allowed Russian ships into the Black Sea
What was the Second Partition in 1792?
a consequence of defense against the French Revolution
What happened after the Third and Final Partition in 1795?
Poland disappears