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40 Cards in this Set

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Copernicus (1473-1543) was an avid student of astronomy, and in 1543 published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this treatise, he presented the heliocentric theory, which rested on the revolutionary notion that the Earth orbited the sun
Galileo (1564-1642) was the most successful scientist of the Scientific Revolution, save only Isaac Newton. He studied physics, specifically the laws of gravity and motion, and invented the telescope and microscope. Galileo eventually combined his laws of physics with the observations he made with his telescope to defend the heliocentric Copernican view of the universe and refute the Aristotelian system in his 1630 masterwork, Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World. Upon its publication, he was censored by the Catholic Church and sentenced to house arrest in 1633, where he remained until his death in 1642.
.Paracelsus (born Phillippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, 11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland – 24 September 1541 in Salzburg, Austria) was a Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist.
-He is also credited for giving zinc its name, calling it zincu and
-is regarded as the first systematic botanist.
Isaac Newton
a.       Was an English scientist;
b.      He made stunning contributions to the science of optics, physics, astronomy, mathematics, and magnum opus;
c.       The Newton laws of motion, theory of gravity, and caculus
John Locke
John Locke (1632–1704)
An English political theorist who focused on the structure of governments. Locke believed that men are all rational and capable people but must compromise some of their beliefs in the interest of forming a government for the people. In his famous Two Treatises of Government (1690), he championed the idea of a representative government that would best serve all constituents.
Voltaire (1694–1778)
A French writer and the primary satirist of the Enlightenment, who criticized religion and leading philosophies of the time. Voltaire’s numerous plays and essays frequently advocated freedom from the ploys of religion, while Candide (1759), the most notable of his works, conveyed his criticisms of optimism and superstition into a neat package.
Denis Diderot (1713–1784)
A French scholar who was the primary editor of the Encyclopédie, a massive thirty-five-volume compilation of human knowledge in the arts and sciences, along with commentary from a number of Enlightenment thinkers. The Encyclopédie became a prominent symbol of the Enlightenment and helped spread the movement throughout Europe.
       Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
.Louis XVI
The French king from 1774 to 1792 who was deposed during the French Revolution and executed in 1793. Louis XVI inherited the debt problem left by his grandfather, Louis XV, and added to the crisis himself through heavy spending during France’s involvement in the American Revolution from 1775 to 1783. Because this massive debt overwhelmed all of his financial consultants, Louis XVI was forced to give in to the demands of the Parlement of Paris and convene the Estates-General—an action that led directly to the outbreak of the Revolution. Louis XVI was deposed in 1792 and executed a year later.
The wife of King Louis XVI and, in the French commoners’ eyes, the primary symbol of the French royalty’s extravagance and excess. When Marie-Antoinette was executed in 1793, she was dressed in a plain dress, common to the poorest in French society.
       Abbe Joseph Sieyes
.Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
A liberal member of the clergy, supporter of the Third Estate, and author of the fiery 1789 pamphlet “What Is the Third Estate?” Sieyès was one of the primary leaders of the Third Estate’s effort at political and economic reform in France.
.Maximilien Robespierre
A brilliant political tactician and leader of the radical Jacobins in the National Assembly. As chairman of the Committee of Public Safety, Robespierre pursued a planned economy and vigorous mobilization for war. He grew increasingly paranoid about counterrevolutionary opposition, however, and during the Reign of Terror of 1793–1794 attempted to silence all enemies of the Revolution in an effort to save France from invasion. After the moderates regained power and the Thermidorian Reaction was under way, they had Robespierre executed on July 28, 1794.
    Napoleon Bonaparte
.Taking full advantage of both the opportunities offered by the French Revolution, when the officer class was greatly convulsed, and his own considerable military ability, Napoleon became First Consul of France after a coup before crowning himself Emperor. He fought wars across Europe, establishing a reputation as one of the great generals and reformed the French legal system, but wasn’t free of mistakes, leading a disastrous expedition into Russia in 1812. Defeated in 1814 and exiled, defeated again in 1815 at Waterloo by an alliance of European nations, he was again exiled, this time to St. Helena where he died.
    Klemens von Metternich
.Austrian foreign minister, Metternich was Europe's arch-Reactionary. He was a leading architect of the balance of power developed at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and he called the great powers to various Congresses throughout the coming decade to put down European rebellions wherever they started. In 1848, during a revolution in Vienna, Metternich fled the city.
    James Watt
.James Watt, FRS, FRSE (19 January 1736 – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both the Kingdom of Great Britain and the world.
    George Stephenson
.George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, and he is renowned as being the "Father of Railways
    Robert Owen
.Robert Owen - Manchester manufacturer who grew upset by the conditions endured by workers in Industrial Revolution Britain, and became a reformer.
    Friedrich Engels
.Friedrich Engels (German pronunciation: [ˈɛŋəls]; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of communist theory, alongside Karl Marx. Together they produced The Communist Manifesto in 1848.
    Karl Marx
. German economist and philosopher who, along with Friedrich Engels, wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital while in living in England. The ideology of Communism draws its inspiration from Marx and Engels' work, which was influenced by the social environment in Western Europe during the first half of the 19th century.
    Napoleon III
.Louis Napoleon Bonaparte - After the February Revolution in Paris in 1848, Louis Napoleon was elected President in France simply on the basis of name recognition among the newly enfranchised voters. He soon declared himself Emperor Napoleon III. France prospered under him for two decades.
Napoleon III - 1808-1873; formerly Louis Napoleon and nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte; won in the presidential election in France in December 1848, but took dictatorial powers on December 2, 1851 and took the monarchical title; can be considered the first modern politician due to his mastery of communication and appearances to maintain the grandeur of France; known for his economic prosperity, rejuvenation of Paris, and support of Italian unification; defeated in Franco-Prussian War.
    Camilo Cavour
.Camillo di Cavour - 1810-1861; Sardinian prime minister and architect of Italian unification under Sardinia's crown; skillfully used realpolitik and his understanding of international relations to enhance Sardinia's stature as a European power and use the French-Austrian conflict to his advantage.
    Giuseppe Garibaldi
.Giuseppe Garibaldi - Italian patriot, democrat, and freedom fighter; once Italian unification seemed possible, after the defeat of Austria, he led a legion of Italian fighters through the Kingdom of Naples, liberated province after province to create a unified Italian state; forced to relinquish his territory to Camillo di Cavour's Sardinian lands in the name of unification.
    Victor Emmanuel II
.Vittorio Emanuele II (English: Victor Emmanuel II) (14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia from 1849 to 1861. On 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland
    Otto von Bismarck
.As Prime Minister of Prussia, Bismarck was the key figure in the creation of a united German empire, for which he served as Chancellor. Having led Prussia through a series of successful wars in creating the empire, Bismarck worked hard to maintain the European status quo and avoid major conflict so the German Empire could grow and become commonly accepted. He resigned in 1890 with a sense of having failed to stop the development of social democracy in Germany.
    Kaiser Wilhelm II
.Wilhelm II
The German kaiser (emperor) during the war. Wilhelm II was a cousin of Nicholas II of Russia and George V of Britain; all were grandsons of Queen Victoria of England.
    King Leopold II of Belgium
.Leopold II (9 April 1835 – 17 December 1909) was King of the Belgians.
- he succeeded his father to the throne in 1865 and remained king until his death.

Leopold is chiefly remembered as the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project undertaken by the King.
    Cecil Rhodes
.Cecil Rhodes - British investor, politician, and imperial boss who envisioned a railroad connecting all British territory from Cairo, Egypt to Cape Town, South Africa. He was the major investor who, after the discovery of gold in Transvaal, brought the British in to mine the mineral, sparking conflict with the Afrikaner government. He orchestrated an overthrow of the government that failed and ruined his reputation.
    Gavrilo Princip
.Gavrilo Princip
A teenage Serbian militant who assassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. Princip was armed and trained by a Serbian terrorist group known as the Black Hand. His assassination of Ferdinand is widely considered to be the opening shot of World War I. Princip spent the war in prison, where he died of tuberculosis in 1918.
    Woodrow Wilson
.Woodrow Wilson
The president of the United States for the entire period of the war. During the first half of the war, Wilson, a Democrat, maintained a strictly neutral position and tried to serve as an active intermediary between the two sides. American neutrality remained a major theme during his 1916 reelection campaign. However, Wilson was soon forced to change his position when Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare and the American public was scandalized by the infamous Zimmermann telegram in 1917.
    Tsar Nicholas II
.Nicholas II
The last Russian tsar, who ruled from 1894 until 1917. Nicholas II, who assumed the throne with trepidation upon his father Alexander III’s death, was a clumsy and ineffective leader whose avoidance of direct involvement in government caused resentment among the Russian people and resulted in violence in 1905. Nicholas II abdicated on March 2, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution. In July 1918, the Bolsheviks executed Nicholas along with his wife, Alexandra, and their children
    Alexander Kerenski
.Alexander Kerensky
A member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party and an active participant in both the provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet. At first, Kerensky acted as a liaison between the two governing bodies. Within the provisional government, he served as minister of justice, minister of war, and later as prime minister. After the October Revolution, Kerensky fled the country and eventually immigrated to the United States, where he taught Russian history at Stanford University.
.Library of CongressFounder of the Bolshevik party and one of Russia’s leading revolutionaries, Lenin might have had little impact if Germany hadn’t used a special train to deliver him into Russia as the 1917 revolution unfolded. But they did, and he arrived in time to inspire the Bolshevik revolution of October 1917. He went on to head the communist government, overseeing the Russian Empire's transformation into the USSR. He has been labelled as history’s greatest revolutionary.
.Leon Trotsky (a.k.a. Leon Bronstein)
A Bolshevik leader and one of the most prominent figures of the October Revolution. Trotsky, who was in exile abroad during the February Revolution, returned to Russia in May 1917, closely aligned himself with Lenin, and joined the Bolshevik Party during the summer. Trotsky headed the Revolutionary Military Committee, which provided the military muscle for the October Revolution. After the revolution, he was appointed commissar of foreign affairs and led Russia’s negotiations with Germany and Austria for the armistice and subsequent peace treaty that made possible Russia’s exit from World War I.
.Stalin rose through the ranks of Bolshevik revolutionaries until he controlled all of the USSR, a position he secured by ruthless purges and the imprisonment of millions in work camps called Gulags. He oversaw a programme of forced industrialisation and guided Russian forces to victory in World War 2, before establishing a communist dominated eastern European empire. His actions, both during and after WW2, helped create the Cold War, causing him to be labelled as perhaps the most important twentieth century leader of all.
.Benito Mussolini - Mussolini became Italy's premier on October 30, 1922. He consolidated power by using force and intimidation to eliminate his opponents and create a totalitarian state. Mussolini was sympathetic to Hitler's desires for global hegemony, and would join Germany as an ally during World War Two.
.Francisco Franco - Francisco Franco led the Nationalists of Spain in revolt against the Republicans. Upon his victory in 1939, Franco became an oppressive dictator, a position he maintained until 1975.
.Paul Joseph Goebbels (pronounced /ˈɡɜrbəlz/, German: [ˈɡœbəls]; 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. As one of German dictator Adolf Hitler's closest associates and most devout followers, he was known for his zealous oratory and anti-Semitism. He was the chief architect of the Kristallnacht attack on the German Jews, which historians consider to be the beginning of the Final Solution, leading towards the genocide of the Holocaust.
.Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ([ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluˑɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] listen (help·info) 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the SS, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party. As Chief of the German Police and later the Minister of the Interior, Himmler oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo.
.Neville Chamberlain - Neville Chamberlain served as British prime minister from 1937 to 1940. Considered a failure in foreign affairs, he pursued the failed policy of appeasement in regard to Adolf Hitler's aggression, signing the Munich Pact.
.A mixed political reputation earnt before 1939 was completely rewritten by Churchill’s actions during World War 2, when Britain turned to his leadership. He repaid the trust easily, his oratory and ability as Prime Minister driving the nation forward to eventual victory over Germany. Along with Hitler and Stalin, he was the third key European leader of that conflict. However, he lost the 1945 election and had to wait until 1951 to become peacetime leader. A sufferer of depression, he also wrote history.
.Franklin Delano Roosevelt
The 32nd U.S. president, who led the country through the bulk of World War II until his death from a cerebral hemorrhage in April 1945, just a few months before the war ended. Together with Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin, Roosevelt played a decisive role in holding together the Allied coalition that ultimately defeated Nazi Germany.
    Harry Truman
.Harry S Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt’s death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe’s economic recovery.