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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was Montaigne's most important theory?
Relativism in late 17th Century
-exploration overseas leads to realization of human, cultural differences
-Montaigne’s theory on relativism: wrote text about Cannibals
-traveler’s tales, traveler’s books express the need for relativism as well
-Jesuit missionaries in China, MI valley expressed need for cultural sensitivity
-King of Siam and his visits to Paris: expresses need for religious tolerance
Who was Pierre Bayle?
-greatest skeptic thinker (1647-1706).
-skepticism= belief that all things are relative, varying with time and place
-pushed the idea that many popular beliefs were without scientific back-up
-more literary than a truly scientific thinker
-comet example:
-1682: Edmond Halley, a friend of Newton’s predicts the return of a comet
-pop culture is making up comet “myths” not based on fact
-1697: Bayle publishes his Historical and Critical Dictionary
-popular “truth” is usually just an opinion not based in fact
-book is a compilation of exposed myths
-it’s stupid to have a strong opinion in anything
-people are extremely gullible
-mixed skepticism with faith; pro-religious tolerance (don’t hold too strongly on any one opinion!)
Describe the new sense of evidence and its outcomes in the late 17th century
-Europeans weren’t content with the negativity of skepticism
- people didn’t want disbelief; they wanted understanding.
-“English Law of evidence”
-evidence becomes key in deciding criminal cases—before, word of mouth was trusted too highly
-evidence law is uniform for all English courts
-people are allowed legal counsel
-Witchcraft Craze ends
-witches= psychotic
-connection realized between torture and confessions; torture for outlawed
Why did the general public first distrust the study of history?
-new laws of evidence lead to increased interest
-many people are skeptic about the study of history
-Adam didn’t need history
-history isn’t mathematical
-belief that historians were pretentious
-how can you have any certainty about something that happened way before your time?
Who was Jean Mabillon?
French monk who wrote On Diplomatics, in 1681.(referred to ancient charters and diplomas)
-established science of paleography (deciphering, reading, dating and authenticating old manuscripts)
Who was Muratori?
Italian man who explored achrives, documents, manuscripts, spent his lifetime “buried in the books”
Who was Archbishop James Usher?
-Anglican prelate in Ireland
-studies the bible and announces that 4004 BC was the date of the creation of the world--study of chronology.most scholars didn’t believe him b/c of their knowledge of more ancient cultures like Egypt and China…lots of arguments about chronology.
What were the calendar differences b/w Prot/Cath countries?
-Protestant/Orthodox countries followed old/Julian calendar
-Catholic countries followed the Gregorian calendar
-off by 10 days!
-1752: England accepts the Gregorian calendar
-1918: Russia accepts the Gregorian calendar
Who was Richard Simon?
-devout French priest who believed more in the importance of church traditions than the text of the bible
-1678: published Critical History of the Old Testament
-book condemned by church, Louis XIV
-criticized the Old Testament for its reliance on old manuscripts, etc.
Who was Baruch Spinoza?
-Jewish lens-grinder from Amsterdam
-excommunicated from his synagogue, very serious thinker
-developed philosophy of pantheism:
-God has no existence apart from the world, everything is itself and aspect of God, the bible means nothing, miracles/supernatural beings don’t exist, no governments are just.
-people considered this atheistic
-his name became a symbol for “impiety and horrendous unbelief”
-influence slowly spreads to development into rationalist philosophy
What was the background of John Locke?
-educated in medicine, had scientific knowledge
-associated w/ Whig noblemen who were the authors of the 1688 Rev.
what were Locke’s views on Religion ?
-philosophy that dwelled on the merits of common sense
-1689: wrote Letter on Toleration
-advocated for an established church, that didn’t tolerate Roman Catholics or atheists
-believed that Roman Caths/atheists were dangerous to society (Roman Caths= bad foreign alliance, atheists= lack a basic moral responsibility)
-published Reasonableness of Christianity
-argued that Christianity, rightly considered, is a reasonable form of religion.
-combined religious feeling with an “unruffled common sense”, rather than worsening skepticism b/w religion and science
What were Locke’s views on Knowledge?
-1690: published Essay Concerning the Human Understanding
-Question: Is it possible to know anything with certainty? How is certain knowledge arrived at?
-Answer: True or certain knowledge is derived from experience, from the five senses and the mind’s perception of these five senses. = EMPIRICAL PHILOSOPHY
-*This is similar to Bacon’s philosophy about experience and observation leading to truth.
What was Locke’s “Environmentalist” Philosophy?
-denied Descartes’ idea that humans are born with innate ideas.
-believed that the human mind was born with a tabula rasa
-the social environment shapes what people think
*This becomes a huge part of political theory in years to come! It affected views on education, human actions, social institutions, etc. It ultimately gave hope for social progress.