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47 Cards in this Set

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prince henry the navigator
younger son of the King of Portugal who helped capture the North African Por of Ceuta from the Muslims-sparked high interest in Africa-inspiried him to sponsor a navigational school in lisbon and a series of epeditions which developed trade with affrica but also helped find a route to india and far east around africa
what did prince henry the navogator spark that was important?
1. made a conquest that started interest in africa
2. opened a natigation school that had a series of expeditions to develop trade with africa and find a route to india around africa
Bartholomew dias
portueguse captain who sailed around the cape of good hope at the tip of africa
vasco da gama
reached the coast of indian
what gave the portuguese a huge advantage?
they were the first to have cannons on ships and deployed their ships in groups and not alone
how did this help the portuguese?
they established themselves on the western coast of india and for a while controlled the spice trade
what did the spanish decide to do while the portuguese were controlling the africa route to to the indian ocean
try to get an atlantic route to the east
what was bad about columbus's journeys?
he didnt find gold or spices
what was good about columbus's journey?
other generations built on his discoveries
ferdinand magellan
set out to circumnavigate the globe-proved where columbus landed was not part of the far east but an entirely unknown continent
hernan cortes
brought the spanish to mexico and conquered the aztec empire
why did some aztecs coopertate with the spanish
they were conquered by the aztecs and felt no loyalty to the aztecs, who practiced human sacrifice
what did the aztec empire become?
new spain
what ruled aztec ability to fight against Spanish rule?
smallpox and other european diseases
francisco pizarro
spnaish soldier who captured Inca Empire of Peru
why did spanihs and portueguese need to take africans from their homelands to serve on farms and in the mines of the new world/
bc the nativfes were dying of disease and overowrk
price revolution
sudden influx of preciousmetals into europe, most noticeably silver.
what was the primary factor of the price revolution
the population explosion
what was the second factor
the stream of wealth flowing from the new world to the old helped create a significant rise in prices during this period
what did inflation fuel
economic and socail tensions in a europe that previously had been accustomed to stable prices
what contributed to the population growth
agricultural--advance in diets
treaty of lodi
provided balance of power among the major italian city states. created an alliance between long term enemies milan and naples and also included the support of florence-combined powers made sure outside powers stayed out of Italian affairs
why did the french under Charles VIII go into the italian alps
because milan asked french to come to italy to get their long-standing claim to naples
what happened?
the french got kicked out and the medici empire in florence was restored
what laid the groundwork for the eeventual consolidation of the Spanish peninsuula
the marriage of Ferdinand, king of aragon, and isabella, queen of castille
spanish inquisition
an effective method that the spanish monarchy used to root out suspected protestants
how did charles V become the leader of a vast empire that dominated europe
series of well-planned marriages
what did charles V do when he didnt feel like runnin ght eempire anymore
split it up----gave the troublesome eastern Habsburg lands of Austria, Bohemia, and Hungarary as well as his title of holy roman emperor,, to his brother Ferdinand
-gave the more valuable part of the empire, spain and its vast holdings in the new world, along with southern italy and the netherlands, to his son Philip
why did philip lanch the spanish armaada
he used a lot of money to restore Spanish control after he put down a revolt in the netherlands bc
spnaish armaga
an attempt by philip to conquer england, which, under queen elizabeths rule, was aiding the dutch rebels
why were the dutch rebelling
followed an attempt by philip to impose the doctrines of the council of trent and the inquisition in a land where calvinism was big, especailyl among the aristocracy
what finally happened?
netherlands got their freedom and indepedence from spain
cervantes
spaiish writer during a cultural golden age who wrote Don Quixote about values of chivalry in spain
what led to a decline in spains power
the constant wars, the effects of the price revolution, and the economic collpase of the castillian economy
wwhy did hte holy roman empire weaken?
as a result of conflicts with the papacy
golden bull of charles IV
document, which granted to seven german princes the right to elect an emperor, made it clear that the emperor geld office by election rather than hereditary right
what kind of rulers did the princes ususalyl choose?
weak rulers who wouldnt sstand int he way of their own political ambitions
what was a new way for german princes to avoid loses their independence?
the lutheran reformation
who tried to establish genuine imperial control over the habsberg empire as emperor?
charves V
peace of augsburg
signified the end of the religious wars in the time of charles v, who now agreed to adhere to the basic prinicple that the prince decides the religion of the territory
what did peace of augsburg not grant recognition to?
calvinitsts,
thirty years war
a struggle that combined political and religious issues, marked one final attempt within the holy empire to unite it
where did the war begin?
bohemia
why did it start
ferdinand was cronwed king and he was catholic, and most of the bohemians were protestant-the king waws intolerant towards their religious beliefs so a group of bohemian protestant nobles through two of ferdinands catholic advisors out the window-ferdinand was elected holy homan emperor but the bohemians made a calvinist leader instead of him as king. ferdinand didnt have an army so he got duke of bavaria to help him
battleof white mountain
bavarian forces won victory and became king of bohemia again but only for a short time
why didnt the thirty years war just end then?
1. private armies wanted to fight to make a living
2. outsiders became involved bc of the threat to protestants in germany-both catholic and protestant rulers were concerned that because one of the territories didnt have an electoral vote bc of the bohemian phase, they didnt have german liberties, meaning hte independence and political rights enjoyed by territories in the roman empire
3. emperor ferdinand took the defeated protestant's land and greated an opportunity to bring habsburg under control
wallenstein
bohemian noble who controlled an area and helped gerdinand try to gain control over the habsburg empire