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114 Cards in this Set

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NAP III's FOPO goals
to overcome containment in Europe after the Congress of Vienna, to realign continental politics to benefit FR, and to acquire int'l glory like a true Bonaparte
NAP III backed investment banks called
the Credit Mobilier
public works created by NAP III (2)
RR
Suez Canal
NAP III ruled by this phrase and thus oppressed many dissenters
"Order and Progress"
NAP III's FOPO in Mexico
He tried to install Habsburg emperor Francis Joseph's brother Maximilian as ruler but it ended with Max's execution
NAP III's most famous DOPO and it was done under this man
rebuilding Paris (Baron Haussmann)
Changes to Paris under NAP III (7)
1. Haussman's Boulevards- help prevent barricades, 20 meters wide, facilitate commerce and transportation
2. New streetlamps- reduced crime
3. new facades- height limit and neo-classical elements
4. bridges- "N" for nap
5. architecture of state buildings elaborate- solidity of state, prevent revolt
6. Paris Opera House- Baroque architecture
7. New Parks- Parc Montsouris, ease working class discomfort to prevent revolution
Napoleon was known as the...(2)
"Liberal Emperor"
and
"Socialist Emperor"
Combatants of the Crimean War
Russia vs BR and FR
Nicholas I Romanov pressured Ottoman Empire with the intent of getting Constantinople and Wallachia and Moldavia

BR and FR tries to "protect the Christians" in reality to check Russia and BOP and to protect Mediterranean sea routes
"Firsts" of the Crimean War (6)
1. 1st war of the Industrial Era
2. Appearance of Steamships, breech-loading shell-firing artillery, breech-loading rifles, telegraph, tactical use of RRs by BR
3. trenches dug
4. Newspaper correspondents (William Russell, London TImes)
5. Female battlefield nurses- Nightingale, Seacole
6. Hand-rolled paper "cigarettes"
Results of Crimean War
1. Ottoman=> "sick man of europe"
2. industrial capacity = ability to wage war (BR and FR)
3. superiority of BR and FR and weakness of RUS and AUS
4. Alexander II Romanov "the liberator tsar" ends RUS serfdom and hopes to create a mobile labor force and a larger middle class REALPOLITIK
Poem written by this man regarding a battle during the Crimean War (Romantic poetry)
The Charge of the Light Brigade

Alfred Tennyson
Why was NAP III known as the liberal emperor? (8)
1. public works- parks, sewers, RR, schools, roads
2. workhouses, hospitals, asylums, more humane prisons
3. unions had right to strike
4. subsidized medicine
5. free trade agreements (econ reform)
6. credit mobilier- investment banking-> capital->projects
7. "limited liability" stock (you can only lose value of stock)
8. Suez Canal!
FOPO of NAP III (4)
1. Crimean 1853-56 WIN
2. Italian War of Unification LOSE
3. Mexico Empire LOSE
4. Franco-Prussian War 1870-71 LOSE (they captured NAP)
Reforms of Alexander II (6)
1. Emancipation of Serfs (22 mil serfs)
2. creation of justice system to limit landowners' rights to mete out justice arbitrarily
3. est. of zemstvos (regional self-governing councils) to promote local govt
4. community of serfs-> "mir"
5. gave all Russians access to modern civil courts (equality of all ppl before the law)
6. ended 25 yr period of conscription (now 6yr term and attention to education, efficiency, and humane treatment of recruits)
Russian's youth became _____, lacking belief in any values whatsoever.
nihilists
This man's opera became the Italians' song of liberation
Guiseppe Verdi

Va Pensiero
Why did the charge of the light brigade occur?
Bad communication
What was known as the last true gasp of napoleon warfare?
charge of the light brigade
"Brain, Soul, and Sword" of Italian Unity
Brain- Cavour (PM of P-S)
Soul- Verdi + Mazzini (writer)
Sword- Garibaldi and "Red shirts"
The Italian word symbolized the process of italian unification
risorgimento!
Why Piedmont-Sardinia? (6)
1. Vibrant economy
2. Industrialized
3. strong army
4. French aid
5. constitutional monarchy/efficient govt
6. Cavour!
7 Steps to Italian Unification (general)
1. Redeem Lombardy/Venetia from AUS with help of FR
2. Garibaldi and red shirts intervene
3. Garibaldi turns movement/red shirts over to V Emmanuel
4. Italy! 1861
5. Italy + Venetia! 1866
6. Italy + Rome! 1870
7. Italy that pope supported 1929
Cavour asked NAP III to help in redeeming Lombardy/Venetia from AUS. Why did NAP help? (5)
1. AUS was their ancestral enemy
2. offered land (nice and savoy)
3. military glory
4. nap was basically italian
5. hoped to carve out a sphere of influence in Italy
FR/P victories at these two places
1. Magenta
2. Solferino
Why was Cavour personally disappointed with the outcome of the FR/PS vs AUS war?
Although P gets Lombardy, AUS kept Venetia because FR withdraws due to its starting to upset BoP
Garibaldi and the Red shirts' route of attack
from Sicily to Naples with monarchs collapsing along the way due to popular support
Why did V Emmanuel intervene in Garibaldi's plan?
Garibaldi was marching on Rome (capital) and this might bring FR involvement and Catholics all over EU would have opposed
Why did Garibaldi give up so easily to V Emmanuel?
He wanted a republic and gave up this dream for a unified Italy bc V Emmanuel and Cavour wanted Constitutional Monarchy
Who said that GER will achieve its place in the sun?
Kaiser Wilhelm I
Why was EU scared of a German nation?
united GER state will have biggest econ + pop & most industrialized
Why was a unified Ger more threatening than a unified Italy?
Italy didn't have population, location, militaristic attitude, and resource as GER
German unification: Herder
Father of "nationalism"
-every country/group of ppl has own unique cultural identity
-none are superior!
- VOLKSGELST ("spirit of the people")
German unification: Fichte
-German spirit is more noble than others...must be kept PURE from FR, Slavic, Jewish cultures...(east of Ger)
German unification: Father Jahn
-VOLK must not be corrupted by foreign influence
-founded a YOUTH MOVEMENT
-group exercises
4 events that set the stage for GER unity
1. HRE (1st attempt for unity by Charles V)
2. Zollverein (mid 1800s Ger unity free trade, tariff free, econ unity)
3. Frankfurt Assembly 1848- middle class action
4. NAP I- era of nationalism
What is the "small GER w/o AUS" called?
Kleindeutsch
Denmark tries to integrate this area which sparks PR and AUS to defeat Denmark
Schleswig
How does the first war with Denmark lead to the second war between PR and AUS?
AUS protested move by Bis to give Germanic Confederation a popular chamber elected by UMS and BIS caused disputes over the administration of Schleswig by PR and Holstein by AUS
Results of "7 Weeks' War" between AUS and PR
-PR uses RR and a well-trained army to defeat AUS in short war
- Italy gets Venetia
- PR annexes Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Frankfurt, etc
-creation of a North German Confederation->under PR leadership (21 small N states, given a const with Wilhelm as king)
This prince was asked to take the crown in Spain which sparked this thing which sparked the Franco-Prussian War
Prince Leopold Hohenzollern; Em's Dispatch

"Waving the Red Rag before the Gallic Bull"
NAP was captured at this battle which ended the 2nd empire
Battle of Sedan
The German Empire was proclaimed at this location and the empire later becomes known as the ______
Hall of Mirrors (Versailles); 2nd Reich
This Treaty began the 3rd republic of FR and FR ceded Alsace-Lorraine and 5 Billion gold francs

It had this long term effect
Treaty of Frankfurt

Treaty of Versailles 1918 humiliated GER
An assembly elected by UMS that ratified all budgets
Reichstag
Why was it surprising that the Austrian Empire lasted as long as it did? (2)
1. Nationality Issues: Austrian Germans, Hungarian Magyars, Bohemian Czechs, Slavs

2. Militarily Weaker: sat out the crimean war, beaten by NAP III/Cavour, Beaten by Bismarck and PR
Why was AUS weak?
remained a largely Agrarian, politically Conservative and suppressive, Landlord dominated state (no vibrant middle class or industrialization)
This Austrian ruler was more similar to an old absolute king than a progressive leader and disliked anything liberal, progressive, or modern
Franz Joseph
This Austrian man is often compared to Baron Haussmann of FR and implemented these reforms
Alexander Bach

initiated free trade with GER, ended internal customs barriers, encouraged industrialization, built highways and RRs, reformed the courts, rebuilt VIENNA
This nationalities issue was solved in Austria with this action
1867 Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
-Magyars got own constitution, parli, official language, Autonomy
-Austria and Hungary kept joint finance, foreign affairs, and war ministry

NOT A LIBERAL SETTLEMENT
-Germans and Magyars were only 20% of population (slavs were masses and remained landless, ignorant peasant farmers)
This man instituted changes in hospital/medical practices to minimize the spread of disease by microbes or germs
Pasteur
The Catholic Church and Pope Pius IX to address progress and modernization
Syllabus of Errors
This man proposed that the earth's geological structure had developed over an immense span of time and Darwin had read his work
Charles Lyell
laid down the mechanisms by which characteristics are passed from generation to generation
Mendel
French philosopher whose ideas formed the basis of a "positive science" of society and politics. It claimed that careful study of facts would generate accurate laws of society. This idea inspired ppl to believe that they could solve the problems of society.
Auguste Comte

Posivitism
This man espoused widespread reform and mass education to support the complete enfranchisement of women. Wanted a general social improvement in which superior people not be brought down or confined by the will of the masses
John Stuart Mill
Marx wrote two books...what were they called and what did they address?
Communist Manifesto 1848- calls for a violent proletariat revolution (inevitable)

Das Kapital- Marx's proof of why capitalism wouldn't work
Irony behind Marx and Engles
both not proletariats
Marx- leftist, dad was lawyer
engles- dad was factory owner
What qualifies a person as "bourgeois" or "proletariat"?
b- control means of production
p- provides physical labor w/ two hands
What would be the structure of the new communist utopia?
"temporary dictatorship of proletariat" democracy
This man believed in a theory called dialectical materialism (contradictions in nature are the roots of all motion and life, thesis and antithesis come together to form synthesis)
George Hegel
Leader of the international workingmen's association who argued that the existence of the state was the root of social injustice
Mikhail Bakhunin

formed political theory of "anarchism"
Capitalism never failed because...
it is in the interest of capitalists to make concessions to workers (min wage, 8 hr workday, child labor laws)
Marx called these people "appeasers"
people who wanted to help workers to distract from revolution
This man stated that all property is THEFT
Proudhon
This is the idea that workers can be helped through a violent upheaval that replaces current social structures
revolutionary socialism

marxism: aka "social democratic party"

Bolsheviks (RUS)- Lenin
the workers can be best helped by achieving gradual gains, working with current govt, not destroying it
evolutionary socialism

Mensheviks (RUS)
The Paris Commune after the Franco-Prussian war established (3)
1. equality of all citizens
2. promotion of women's rights
3. communal workshops
Who was the leader of the provisional govt of FR who sent in troops to restore order in Paris
Adolph Theirs
significance of Paris Commune (3)
1. class warfare
2. helped raise support for marx
3. heroic event for european leftists
3rd republic govt
cabinet headed by Premier (had real power) in the 2 chamber Parli (senate and chamber of deputies)

ceremonial president
A society in which workers own, manage, and control production.
socialism
history advances through class conflict. production was at the base of every social order.
marxism
radical, violent, and bloody revolution to change society
communism
New vs Old imperialism
1. greater occupation of the interior
2. extraction of raw materials-gold, rubber, diamond
3. RR--> modernization
- infrastructure + capital
Time period, initiator, and participators of new imperialism
1870s-1890s
Belgium King Leopold II

BR, FR, GER, IT
reasons for imperialism (10)
1. realpolitik- military advantage, suez + panama canal, navy coaling stations
2. white man's burden/victorian alleviation of suffering
3. nationalism- pride & prestige (GER and IT)
4. Raw materials- rubber, etc
5. social darwinism
6. new markets for finished industrialized goods
7. religion- missionaries
8. scientific knowledge
9. source of labor
10. invest surplus capital
Man who discovered rubber
Henry Stanley
This conference laid out rules for imperialism with this man ("honest broker") as the leader
Berlin Conference of 1885

Bismarck
This man started a business to import rough diamonds from AFR
Cecil Rhodes
This phrase symbolizes the idea of establishing a railroad along the n and s axis of africa
"cairo to cape town"
the largest and most prominent Indian public organization, and central and defining influence of the Indian Independence Movement.
Indian National Congress
Reasons for rising population (6)
1. improvement in sanitation/clean water
2. lower infant mortality
3. longer life expectancy
4. fewer wars
5. less famine
6. improved diets

BUT FALLING BIRTHRATES
Locations for migration 1871-1900
1. country to city
2. US, South America, Canada, Australia, NZ

Germany had the most emigrants
Reasons for falling birthrates (7)
1. child labor laws (mines act, factory act)
2. compulsory education
3. contraception
4. feminism- reduce burden on women
5. more years spent in education
6. agricultural revolution- fewer hands needed
7. changing norms- urban activities not possible with a lot of kids
These people advocated increased fertility for the "most fit" and sterilization/elimination of the "less fit" (mentally handicapped)
Eugenicists
During this event BR military commanded Indian infantry and so resentment of BR domination grew. Indian troops were told that their cartridges had been greased with pig and cow fat. Result was that BR ruled India directly.
Sepoy Rebellion 1857
During this event BR and FR troops collided in southern Egypt and FR was forced to back down
Fashoda Crisis 1898
Dutch farmers settled at the Cape of Good Hope. Gold was discovered in the territory and Rhodes sends Jameson Raid against the Boers to spark a war in order to seize territory (defeated by farmers). 300,000 English troops defeat 50,000 guerilla farmers
Boer War
This telegram was sent during the Boer war that angered the BR against the GER
kruger telegram
This man wrote this poem about imperialism
Rudyard Kipling

White man's burden
FR colonial possessions in Africa
ALGERIA, west africa, madagascar
Belgian possession in AFR
Congo
BR possession in AFR
north and south band
Egypt, south africa, nigeria
This man believed that physical features of head/body indicated criminal tendencies
Lombroso
IQ tests
ability to think + reason can be measured
later used as an imperialism justification

created by this man
Binet
This man performed an experiment on a dog and coined four terms
Pavlov

unconditional stimulus- meat, inborn

unconditional response- saliva

conditional stimulus- a stimulus that will elicit a predictable response, bell

conditional response- saliva
Three parts of our psyche as mentioned by freud
ID- pleasure principle
EGO- conscious self-balance
SUPEREGO- moral "conscience" right vs wrong
Bismarck's challenges in Germany (4)
1. need to establish peace
2. kulturkampf
3. socialists
4. Wilhelm II
This was a league created by Bismarck that included GER, A-H, and RUS
Three emperor's league
this term was used to describe the suppression of the catholic church and was Bismarck's biggest misstep
Kulturkampf
an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII.It supported the rights of labor to form unions, rejected communism and unrestricted capitalism, whilst affirming the right to private property.
Rerum Novarum
Bismarck provided these 2 socialist programs
1. accident + disability programs and insurance
2. old age pensions
two phrases used by wilhelm II who wanted to rule by himself
"new course"- increase military, acquire colonies, heavy industrialization

"place in the sun"
term used to describe the firing of bismarck
"dropping the pilot"
This alliance was created by bismarck between GER, A-H, and ITALY
Triple Alliance
This treaty was issued by Bismarck to reaffirm the GER and RUS alliance
Reinsurance Treaty
name of the RUS terrorist organization that assassinated Alexander II
People's Will
Why was the emancipation of the serfs not really freedom?
former serfs had to pay a communal redemption fee to the lords and 1/2 of their land belonged to the "MIR"

MIR also owed a share of the redemption payment
people who believed in nothing but science rejected traditional society/culture
nihilists
This affair refers to a man who was punished wrongly for treason and was finally saved by this man
Dreyfus affair

Emile Zola- published denunciation of the army cover-up in a daily newspaper
The Dreyfus affair led this man to create a new movement to search out a homeland for the Jews

This declaration was made by the BR govt in support of such a movement
Herzl

Zionism

Balfour Note
These people advocated the use of direct action, such as general strikes and sabotage, to bring industry and govt under the control of labor unions

this FR man wrote a book about it
Syndicalists

Sorel
This man criticized many Marxist tenets and proposed that socialism be achieved by evolutionary rather than revolutionary means
Eduard Bernstein