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54 Cards in this Set

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nucleus
contains all DNA of animal cell except a little in the mitochondria
nucleoplasm
aqueous soup inside the nucelus
DNA can't leave nucslus so... transcription takes place in
nuclus
RNA leaves nucleus
via nuclear pores
nucleolus
within nucleus, where rRNA and subunits of ribosome are assempbled, not seperated from nucleus by membrane
nuclear envelople
nuclesu wrapped in a double phospholipd bilayer
pinocytosis
to drink; non selective and occurs in most cells
phagocytosis
to eat
ER
thick maze of membranous walls seperating cytosol (liquid inside cell) from er lumen or cisternal space (extracellular side of ER); in many places ER is contiguous with cell membrane and nuclear membrane; contiguous in places with the space between the double bilayer of the nucler envelope
rough ER
near nucleus has many ribosome attached; proteins created in ER, tagged with a a signal sequence of amino acids and sometimes glycosylated (carbohydrate chains added). newly synthezised proteins headed to golgi apparatus
cisternae of ER
Individual networks of the membranous tubules and sacs of the ER
rough ER
protein synthesis and membrane production; these proteins stay in ER lumen or cisternae ; covalently bound to carbohydrates to make glycoproteins
smooth ER
synthesizing and detoxification of molecules; Steroid production, e.g. sex hormones by the gonads and cortico-steroids by the adrenal glands
Hydrolysis of glycogen in liver cells (hepatocytes)
Detoxification of drugs, e.g. addition of a hydroxyl group to drugs and alcohol to make them more water soluble and able to be excreted
Ion salvaging, e.g. smooth ER of muscle cells pump Ca ions from the cytosol and store it the smooth ER's cisternae for future use
golgi apparatus
modifying, packaging, storing and shipping cell products;looks like a stack of flattened sacs and has a receiving (cis) side and a sending (trans) side; Glycosylation of proteins to create glycoproteins occurs in the Golgi appratus
transport vesicles bud off of ER and go to Golgi
from one compartment to the next of golgi; those proteins without a signal sequence are packaged into secretary vesicles and expelled via bulk flow
golgi changes proteins chemically
via glycosylation or removing amino acids
end product of golgi
vesicle full of proteins which may be expelled via secretary vesicles or mature into lysosomes, or transported to other parts of cell like mitochondria or back to ER
secretory vesicles (also called zymogen granules)
may contain enzymes, growth factors, or extracellular matrix components; also acts as a vhicle to supply integral proteins and lipids for membrane expansion; usually ocntiunally released by most cells via constitutive secretion; some proteins are activated withiin the secretory vesicle, e.g., proinsulin is cleaved to insulin only after secretory vesicle buds off the golgi
lysosome
membrane vesicle that contains acid hydrolases such as proteases, lipases, glycosidases which are capable of breaking down every macromolecules; have interior of pH 5; fuse to endocytotic veiscle and digest contents
acid hydrolases
hydrolytic enzymes that function best in an acid environment
autolysis
lysosomes rupture anre relases contents into the cell, killing cell (e.g., finger formation)
smooth ER
tends to look tubular; contains glucose - 6 phopatase (used in liver, epithelial cells etc) to hydrolyze glucose 6-phosphate from production of glucse from glycogen;
triglycerides produeced in ER and stored as fat droplets; also helps detoxify
adipocytes
cells mainly containing fat droplets; important for fat regularion and temp
cholesterol formation
by cytosol and smooth ER
phospholipids
primarily formed originally in smooth ER
peroxisomes vesicles
grow by incorporating lipids and proteins from the cytosol, and can self-replicate; involved in production and breakdown of hydrogen peroxide; plays role in production and breakdown of lipids,inactivating toxic substances; regulate oxygen concentration
2 main compartments of cell
cytosol and ER lumen
to reach cytosol
substance must cross membrane via passive or facilitated diffuseion or active transport
to reach ER lumen
via endocytosis without transport acorss membrane
cytoskeleton
network of filaments involved in structure and motility of cell which include microtubles and microfilaments
microtubule
large, rigid, hoolow, made from tubulin protein (globular)but can polymerize to straight gilament, 13 filaments like to form tube (mitotic spindle made from microtubules)
flagella and cillia
made from microtubule; major portion called axoneme contains 9 pairs of microtubuules forming a circle around 2 long microtubules 9+2 arrangement, dynein connect paris, allowing it to slide, creating whip like action for fluid to move laterarlly or ciggle action of flagella
flagella movement
wiggle like causing fluid to move directly awa from the cell
cilia
whid like causing fluid to move laterally
microtubles + and - end
centrosome major microtubule organizing center (-) end; growth occurs away from - end at its + end
microfilaments
actin forms major component; microfilamntes produce the contracting force ;important in cytoplasmic streaming (amoeba like movement) phagocytosis, and microvili movemnet
eukaryotic flagella
undergo whip like action
prokaryotic flagella
rotate
cell junctions
tight junction, desmosomes, gap junctions
tight junction
waterproof; found in epithelial of organs that need to conserve on water (e.g., kideny)
desmosomes
join 2 cells ata single point, attached at cytoskeleton, found in cells that undergo a lot of stress (skin)
gap junctions
small tunnels connecting cells, allows some molecules to passs; found in cardiac muscle that provides spread of action potential from cell to cell
centrioles
function in the production of flagella and cilia but not necesary for microtuble production
mitochondria
powerhouse of eukaryotic cell; krebs cycle location; ensymbiotic theory; have own DNA that replicates independnelty; this DNA has no histone or nucleosomes; circular DNA; have own ribosomes; antibiotics that block translation of prokaryotic ribosomes also block mitochonrial ribosome tranlsation; mitochondrial DNA passed maternally
mitochondria membrane
surrounded by 2 phospholipid bilayers; inner membrane invaginates to form cristae (this inner membrane holds the electron transport chain too) between inner and outer is the intermembrane space
extracellular matrix
molecular network that holds tissue cells in place (from fibroblasts that secrete proteins like elastin and collagen); consistency maybe liquid or blood
functions of extracellular matrix
provide structural support, help determine cell shape and motiolity and affect growth
3 classes of molecules that make up animal cell molecules
1. glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans; 2. structural proteins; 3. adhesive proteins
extracellular matrix
stuff that surrounds the cell and it is formed by the cell itself
basal lamina
thin sheet of matrix material that seperates epithelial cells from support cells
epithelial tissue
sperates free body surgaces from surrounding (simple = 1 layer; startified = multiple lagers)
endothelium
simple epithelium like that which lines the heart
connective tissue
extensive matrix (e.g., blood, lymph, bone, cartilage, connective tissue, proper making up tendons and ligaments
organs
multiple types of tissue