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75 Cards in this Set

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3
Thyroid Gland
1693 (in ref. to both the cartilage and the gland), from Gk. thyreoiedes "shield-shaped" (in khondros thyreoiedes "shield-shaped cartilage," used by Galen to describe the "Adam's apple" in the throat), from thyreos "oblong, door-shaped shield" (from thyra "door") + -eides "form, shape." The noun, short for thyroid gland, is recorded from 1849.
4
Clavicle
1615, from M.Fr. clavicule "collarbone," from M.L. clavicula, from L., lit. "small key, bolt," dim. of clavis "key" (see slot (2)); a loan-translation of Gk. kleis "key, collarbone." So called supposedly from its function as the "fastener" of the shoulder.
6
Biceps Muscle
1634, from L. biceps "having two parts," lit. "two-headed," from bis "double" + -ceps comb. form of caput "head" (see head). Despite the -s it is singular, and there is no such word as bicep.
8
Sternum
1667, from Gk. sternon "chest, breast, breastbone" (in Homer, only of males), from PIE *stre-to- "to stretch, extend," from a root meaning "flat surface," related to stornynai "to spread out" (see structure), on the notion of the chest as broad and flat, as opposed to the neck.
11
External Oblique Muscle
1537 (as extern), from L. externus "outside, outward," from exterus (see exterior). This version won out over exterial.

1432, from M.Fr. oblique, from L. obliquus "slanting, sidelong, indirect," from ob "against" + root of licinus "bent upward," from PIE base *lei- "to bend, be movable" (see limb (1)). As a type of muscles, in ref. to the axis of the body, 1615 (adj.), 1800 (n.).
13a
Subcutaneous Inguinal Ring
"under the skin," 1651, from sub- + cutaneous

1681, from L. inguinalis "of the groin," from inguen (gen. inguinis) "groin."

lit. "something curved," from PIE base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend" (cf. L. curvus "bent, curved,"
14
Gluteus Medius Muscle
"buttocks muscle," 1681, from Mod.L. glutæus, from Gk. gloutos "rump."
15
Tensor Fasciae Latae Muscle
muscle that stretches a part, 1704, Mod.L., agent noun of L. tendere "to stretch"
16
Sartorius Muscle
1390, "higher in position," from O.Fr. superior, from L. superiorem (nom. superior) "higher," comparative of superus "situated above, upper," from super "above, over" (see super-). Meaning "higher in rank or dignity" is attested from 1485; sense of "of a higher nature or character" is attested from 1533. Noun meaning "person of higher rank" is attested from 1483.
5
Deltoid
delta
c.1200, Gk. letter shaped like a triangle, equivalent to our "D," the name from Phoenician daleth "tent door." Herodotus used it of the mouth of the Nile, and it was so used in Eng. from 1555; applied to other river mouths from 1790. Deltoid muscle so called since 1741, from its shape.

saltire
L. saltatorius "pertaining to leaping," from salire "to leap" (see salient). The connection between a stirrup and the diagonal cross is perhaps the two deltoid shapes that comprise the cross.
23
Occipitalis Muscle
occipital
1541, from M.Fr. occipital, from M.L. occipitalis, from L. occiput (gen. occipitis) "back of the skull," from ob "against, behind" + caput "head"
26
Orbicularis Oris
Auriga
northern constellation, from L. auriga "a charioteer, driver," from aureæ "bridle of a horse" (from os, gen. oris, "mouth") + agere "set in motion, drive, lead"

oral
1625, from L.L. oralis, from L. os (gen. oris) "mouth, opening, face, entrance"
30
Internal Jugular Vein
internal
1590, from M.L. internalis, from L. internus "within," from inter "between"

junction
1711, "act of joining," from L. junctionem (nom. junctio), noun of action from jungere "to join"

vein
c.1300, from O.Fr. veine, from L. vena "a blood vessel,"
31
Common Carotid Artery
carotid
1543, "pertaining to the two great arteries of the neck," from Gk. karotides pl. of karotis, from karoun "plunge into sleep or stupor," since compression of these arteries was believed to cause unconsciousness (Galen).
32
larynx
1578, from M.Fr., from Gk. larynx (gen. laryngos) "the upper windpipe," probably from laimos "throat," influenced by pharynx "throat, windpipe." Laryngitis (1822) is Medical L., from larynx + -itis
33
Pharynx
1693, from Gk. pharynx (gen. pharyngos) "windpipe, throat," related to pharanx "cleft, chasm."
34
Trachea
c.1400, from M.L. trachea (c.1255), as in trachea arteria, from L.L. trachia (c.400), from Gk. trakheia, in trakheia arteria "windpipe," lit. "rough artery" (so called from the rings of cartilage that form the trachea), from fem. of trakhys "rough."
37
Arch of Aorta
arch
1547, "chief, principal," from prefix arch- (from Gk. arkhos "chief"), used in 12c. archangel, etc., but extended to so many derogatory uses (arch-rogue, arch-knave, etc.) that it acquired a meaning of "roguish, mischievous," since softened to "saucy"

aorta
1578, from M.L. aorta, from Gk. aorte, term applied by Aristotle to the great artery of the heart, lit. "what is hung up," from aeirein "to raise,"
39
Lungs
O.E. lungen (pl.), from P.Gmc. *lungw- (cf. O.N. lunge, O.Fris. lungen, M.Du. longhe, Ger. lunge "lung"), lit. "the light organ," from PIE *lengwh- "not heavy, light, easy, agile, nimble" (cf. Rus. lëgkij, Pol. lekki "light;" Rus. lëgkoje, Pol. lekkie "lung," Gk. elaphros "light"). Cf. Port. leve "lung," from L. levis "light;" Ir. scaman "lungs," from scaman "light;" Welsh ysgyfaint "lungs," from ysgafn "light."
41
Triceps
"the great extensor muscle," 1704, from L. triceps "three-headed," from tri- "three" + -ceps, from caput "head." So called because the muscle has three origins.
42
Liver
"secreting organ of the body," O.E. lifer, from P.Gmc. *librn (cf. O.N. lifr, O.Fris. livere, M.Du. levere, O.H.G. lebara, Ger. Leber "liver"), perhaps lit. "fatten up." In M.E. it rivaled the heart as the supposed seat of love and passion, hence lily-livered
43
Gall Bladder
gall
"bile," O.E. galla (Anglian), gealla (W. Saxon), from P.Gmc. *gallon- (cf. O.N. gall, O.H.G. galla), from PIE base *ghol-/*ghel- "gold, yellow, yellowish-green" (cf. Gk. khole, see cholera; L. fel; perhaps also O.E. geolo "yellow," Gk. khloros).
44
Stomach
c.1300, "internal pouch into which food is digested," from O.Fr. estomac, from L. stomachus "stomach, throat," also "pride, inclination, indignation" (which were thought to have their origin in that organ), from Gk. stomachos "throat, gullet, esophagus," lit. "mouth, opening," from stoma "mouth"
45
Colon
"large intestine," 1398, from Gk. kolon (with a short initial -o-) "large intestine, food, meat."
46
Small Intestines
"bowels," 1597, from L. intestina, neut. pl. of intestinus (adj.) "internal, inward, intestine," from intus "within, on the inside." Cf. Skt. antastyam, Gk. entosthia "bowels." The O.E. word was hropp, lit. "rope."
51
Flexor Digitorum Sublimis Muscle
sublime
1586, "expressing lofty ideas in an elevated manner," from M.Fr. sublime, from L. sublimis "uplifted, high, lofty," possibly originally "sloping up to the lintel," from sub "up to" + limen "lintel."
54
Transverse Carpal Ligament
traverse
c.1325, "pass across, over, or through," from O.Fr. traverser "to cross, thwart" (11c.), from V.L. *traversare, from L. transversare "to cross, throw across," from L. transversus "turn across"

carpal
"of the wrist," 1743, from Mod.L. carpalis, from carpus "wrist."
58
Flexor Tendons and Sheaths
tendon
1543, from M.L. tendonem (nom. tendo), altered (by influence of L. tendere "to stretch") of L.L. tenon, from Gk. tenon (gen. tenontos) "tendon, sinew," from teinein "to stretch"
21
Diaphragm
1398, from L.L. diaphragma, from Gk. diaphragma (gen. diaphragmatos) "partition, barrier," from diaphrassein "to barricade," from dia- "across" + phrassein "to fence or hedge in." The native word is midriff. Meaning "contraceptive cap" is from 1933.
34
Trachea
c.1400, from M.L. trachea (c.1255), as in trachea arteria, from L.L. trachia (c.400), from Gk. trakheia, in trakheia arteria "windpipe," lit. "rough artery" (so called from the rings of cartilage that form the trachea), from fem. of trakhys "rough."
37
Aorta
1578, from M.L. aorta, from Gk. aorte, term applied by Aristotle to the great artery of the heart, lit. "what is hung up," from aeirein "to raise,"
80
Superior Vena Cava
1626, from L. venosus "full of veins," from vena
82
Portal Vein
c.1300, from M.L. portale "city gate, porch," from neut. of portalis (adj.) "of a gate," from L. porta "gate"
89
Esophagus
1392, from Gk. oisophagos "gullet," lit. "what carries and eats," from oisein, fut. inf. of pherein "to carry" (see infer) + -phagos, from phagein "to eat"
90
Inferior Vena Cava
1432, from L. inferior "lower," comp. form of inferus (adj.) "that is below or beneath," from infra "below."
91a
Right Atrium
"opposite of left," 1125, riht, from O.E. riht, which did not have this sense but meant "good, proper, fitting, straight" (see right (adj.1) ). The notion is of the right hand as the "correct" hand. The O.E. word for this was swiþra, lit. "stronger."

1577, from L., "central court or main room of an ancient Roman house," sometimes said (on authority of Varro, "De Lingua Latina") to be an Etruscan word, but perhaps from PIE *ater- "fire," on notion of "place where smoke from the hearth escapes" (through a hole in the roof). Anatomical sense of "either of the upper cavities of the heart" first recorded 1870. Meaning "skylit central court in a public building" first attested 1967.
94b
Left Atrium
c.1205, from Kentish form of O.E. lyft- "weak, foolish" (cf. lyft-adl "lameness, paralysis," E.Fris. luf, Du. dial. loof "weak, worthless"). It emerged 13c. as "opposite of right,"

1577, from L., "central court or main room of an ancient Roman house," sometimes said (on authority of Varro, "De Lingua Latina") to be an Etruscan word, but perhaps from PIE *ater- "fire," on notion of "place where smoke from the hearth escapes" (through a hole in the roof). Anatomical sense of "either of the upper cavities of the heart" first recorded 1870. Meaning "skylit central court in a public building" first attested 1967.
91c
Right Ventricle
1392, from L. ventriculus "stomach," dim. of venter (gen. ventris) "belly"
91d
Left Ventricle
1392, from L. ventriculus "stomach," dim. of venter (gen. ventris) "belly"
92
Coronary Arteries and Veins
1610 (adj.) "suitable for garlands," from L. coronarius "of a crown," from corona "crown." Anatomical use is 1679 for structure of blood vessels that surround the heart like a crown. Short for coronary thrombosis it dates from 1955.
93
Pulmonary Artery
1704, from L. pulmonarius "of the lungs," from pulmonem (nom. pulmo, gen. pulmonis) "lung," cognate with Gk. pleumon "lung," O.C.S. plusta, Lith. plauciai "lungs," all from PIE *pleu- "to flow, to float, to swim" (see pluvial). The notion probably is from the fact that, when thrown into a pot of water, lungs of a slaughtered animal float, while the heart, liver, etc., do not. (cf. M.E. lights "the lungs," lit. "the light (in weight) organs").
94
Spleen
c.1300, from O.Fr. esplen, from L. splen, from Gk. splen, from PIE *splegh- (cf. Skt. plihan-, Avestan sperezan, Armenian p'aicaln, L. lien, O.C.S. slezena, Lith. bluznis, O.Prus. blusne, O.Ir. selg "spleen"). Regarded in medieval physiology as the seat of morose feelings and bad temper. Hence fig. sense of "violent ill-temper" (1594).
95
Adrenal Glands
"of or near the kidneys" (1875), from ad- "to" + renalis "of the kidneys," from L. renes "kidneys."
96
Kidney
c.1325, of unknown origin, originally kidenere, perhaps a compound of O.E. cwið "womb" + ey "egg," in reference to the shape of the organ. Fig. sense of "temperament" is from 1555. Kidney bean is from 1548.
98
Pancreas
1578, from Gk. pankreas "sweetbread (pancreas as food), pancreas," from pan- "all" + kreas "flesh," probably on notion of homogeneous substance of the organ.
99
Duodenum
1398, from M.L. duodenum digitorium "space of twelve digits," from L. duodeni "twelve each." Coined by Gerard of Cremona (d.1187), who translated "Canon Avicennae," a loan-transl. of Gk. dodekadaktylon, lit. "twelve fingers long," the intestine part so called by Gk. physician Herophilus (c.353-280 B.C.E.) for its length, about equal to the breadth of twelve fingers.
104
Rectum
1541, from L. intestinum rectum "straight intestine," in contrast to the convolution of the rest of the bowels, from neut. pp. of regere "to straighten" (see right). A loan-translation of Gk. apeuthysmeon enteron, "the name given to the lowest part of the large intestine by Galen, who so called it because he dissected only animals whose rectum (in contradistinction to that of man) is really straight"
106
Inguinal Bladder
1681, from L. inguinalis "of the groin," from inguen (gen. inguinis) "groin."
107
Pubic Bone
1831, from pubis "bone of the groin" (1597), short for L. pubis os, from L. pubes (gen. pubis) "pubic hair," from L. pubes "genital area, groin," related to pubes "full-grown"
9
Ribs
O.E. ribb "rib," from P.Gmc. *rebja (cf. O.N. rif, O.Fris. ribb, O.H.G. ribba, Ger. Rippe), lit. "a covering" (of the chest), from PIE *rebh- "to roof, cover" (cf. O.C.S. rebro "rib"). The verb meaning "tease, fool" is first attested 1930, perhaps as a figurative extension of poking someone in the ribs. Rib joint "brothel" is slang from 1943, probably in allusion to Adam's rib (cf. rib "woman, wife," attested from 1589).
66
Spinal Cord
c.1300, from O.Fr. corde, from L. chorda "string, gut," from Gk. khorde "string, catgut, chord, cord," from PIE base *gher- "intestine." As a measure of wood (eight feet long, four feet high and wide) first recorded 1616, so called because it was measured with a cord of rope.
69
Hard Palate
O.E. heard "solid, firm, not soft," also "severe, rigorous, cruel," from P.Gmc. *kharthus (cf. Du. hard, O.N. harðr "hard," O.H.G. harto "extremely, very," Goth. hardus "hard"), from PIE *kratus "power, strength" (cf. Gk. kratos "strength," kratys "strong"). The adv. sense was also present in O.E. Hard of hearing preserves obsolete M.E. sense of "having difficulty in doing something."

1382, "roof of the mouth," from O.Fr. palat, from L. palatum "roof of the mouth," perhaps of Etruscan origin. Popularly considered the seat of taste, hence transferred meaning "sense of taste" (1526). Palatable "good-tasting" is attested from 1669.
110
Cerebral Falx
1816, from Fr. cérébral, from L. cerebrum "brain," from PIE *keres-, from base *ker- "top of the head." Meaning "intellectual, clever" is from 1929.

L. falx (gen. falcis) "sickle," usually said to be so called for the shape of its talons or beak, but possibly from the shape of its spread wings.
111
Frontal Sinus
1597, "abscess, sore," from M.L. sinus, from L. sinus "bend, fold, curve." Meaning "hollow curve or cavity in the body" is attested from 1672. Sinusitis "inflammation of a sinus" is recorded from 1896.
113
Cerebral Cavity
1816, from Fr. cérébral, from L. cerebrum "brain," from PIE *keres-, from base *ker- "top of the head." Meaning "intellectual, clever" is from 1929.

1541, from M.Fr. cavité, from L.L. cavitas "hollowness," from L. cavus "hollow"
115
Nasal Turbinate Bones
1656, "of the nose," from Fr. nasal, from L. nasus "nose," from PIE *nas- (see nose). Of speech sounds, attested from 1669.
117
Mandible
1548, "jaw, jawbone," from L.L. mandibula "jaw," from L. mandere "to chew." Of insect mouth parts from 1826.
120
Cervical Nerves
c.1374, nerf "sinew, tendon," from M.L. nervus "nerve," from L. nervus "sinew, tendon," metathesis of pre-L. *neuros, from PIE *(s)neu- (cf. Skt. snavan- "band, sinew," Arm. neard "sinew," Gk. neuron "sinew, tendon," in Galen "nerve"). Sense of "fibers that convey impulses between the brain and the body" is from 1606.
122
Brachial Plexus
1682, Mod.L., lit. "braid, network," from pp. of L. plectere "to twine, braid, fold," used of a network, such as solar plexus "network of nerves in the abdomen"
125
Scapula
"shoulder blade," 1578, Mod.L., from L.L. scapula "shoulder," from L. scapulæ (pl.) "shoulders, shoulder blades," of unknown origin; perhaps originally "spades, shovels" (cf. Gk. skaphein "to dig out"), on notion of similar shape, but actual shoulder blades may have been used as digging tools in primitive times.
126
Shoulder Joint
O.E. sculdor, from W.Gmc. *skuldro (cf. M.Du. scouder, Du. schouder, O.Fris. skoldere, M.L.G. scholder, O.H.G. scultra, Ger. Schulter), of unknown origin, perhaps related to shield. Meaning "edge of the road" is attested from 1933. The verb is first attested c.1300 with sense "to push with the shoulder;" meaning "take a burden" first recorded 1582.
127
Humerus
1706, "bone of the upper arm," orig. (14c.) "shoulder," a misspelled borrowing of L. umerus "shoulder," from PIE *omesos (cf. Skt. amsah, Gk. omos, O.N. ass, Goth. ams "shoulder").
128
Spine
c.1400, "backbone," later "thornlike part" (1430), from O.Fr. espine (Fr. épine), from L. spina "backbone," originally "thorn, prickle," from PIE *spei- "sharp point" (cf. L. spica "ear of corn," O.N. spikr "nail;" see spike (n.1)). Meaning "the back of a book" is first attested 1922. Spineless in fig. sense of "irresolute" is from 1885. Spine-chiller "mystery film" is attested from 1940; spine tingler in same sense is from 1942.
129
Median Nerve
1592, from M.Fr. médian, from L. medianus "of the middle," from medius "middle" (see medial). Originally anatomical, of veins, arteries, nerves; mathematical sense "middle number of a series" first recorded 1902; median strip "strip between lanes of a highway" is from 1954.
130
Radial Nerve
1570, from M.L. radialis, from L. radius "beam of light" (see radius). As a type of tire, attested from 1965, short for radial-ply (tire).
134
Radius
1597, "cross-shaft," from L. radius "staff, spoke of a wheel, beam of light," of unknown origin. Perhaps related to radix "root," but Tucker suggests connection to Skt. vardhate "rises, makes grow," via root *neredh- "rise, out, extend forth;" or else Gk. ardis "sharp point." The geometric sense first recorded 1611. Plural is radii. Meaning "circular area of defined distance around some place" is attested from 1953. Meaning "shorter bone of the forearm" is from 1615 in Eng.; it was used thus by Roman writer Aulus Cornelius Celsus (1c.).
135
Ulna
inner bone of the forearm, 1541, from L., lit. "elbow," related to O.E. eln
136a
Ischium
"the seat bone," 1646, from L., from Gk. iskhion "hip joint," in pl., "the hips," probably from iskhi "loin," of unknown origin.
136b
Pubis
1831, from pubis "bone of the groin" (1597), short for L. pubis os, from L. pubes (gen. pubis) "pubic hair," from L. pubes "genital area, groin," related to pubes "full-grown"
137
Sacrum
"bone at the base of the spine," 1753, from L.L. os sacrum "sacred bone," from L. os "bone" + sacrum, neut. of sacer "sacred." Said to be so called because the bone was the part of animals that was offered in sacrifices. Translation of Gk. hieron osteon. But Gk. hieros also can mean "strong."
137a
Coccyx
1615, from Gk. kokkyx "cuckoo" (from kokku, like the bird's Eng. name echoic of its cry), so called by ancient Gk. physician Galen because the bone in humans supposedly resembles a cuckoo's beak.
140
Sciatic Nerve
1398, from M.L. sciatica, in sciatica passio "sciatic disease," from fem. of sciaticus "sciatic," from L. ischiadicus "of pain in the hip," from Gk. iskhiadikos, from iskhias (gen. iskhiados) "pain in the hips," from iskhion "hip joint." Sciatic (adj.) is attested from 1547.
141
Femur
1563, from L. femur "thigh," borrowed first as an architectural term, 1799 as "thighbone." The adj. femoral (1782) is from L. gen. femoris.
142
Carpal
"of the wrist," 1743, from Mod.L. carpalis, from carpus "wrist."
143
Metacarpal Bones
meta
prefix meaning 1. "after, behind," 2. "changed, altered," 3. "higher, beyond," from Gk. meta (prep.) "in the midst of, among, with, after," from PIE *me- "in the middle" (cf. Goth. miþ, O.E. mið "with, together with, among," see mid). Notion of "changing places with" probably led to senses "change of place, order, or nature," which was the principal meaning of the Gk. word when used as a prefix. Third sense, "higher, beyond," is due to misinterpretation of metaphysics (q.v.) as "transcending physical science."