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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Location of the thermoregulatory center
Anterior Hypothalamus
Three major things that can stimulate the thermoregulatory center
Cutaneous receptors
Deep receptors
Monamines
Seven mechanisms for heat gain:
Decreased loss: vasoconstriction, piloerection, postural changes, seeking warm env. Increased production: Catecholamines, thyroxine, shivering
Six mechanisms for heat loss:
Vasodilation, panting, perspiration, postural changes, seeking cool env., grooming (cat)
Physics of heat loss:
Evaporation, Convection, Radiation
Hyperthermia
Elevation of core body temperature above normal set point
Fever
Hyperthermia that is caused by the change of the normal set point to a higher temperature
Endogenous Causes of Hyperthermia
Endogenous pyrogens (true fever)
Inadequate heat dissapation (heat stroke, hyperpyrexic syndrome)
Exercise hyperthermia (sz, tetany, exercise)
Pathologic or Pharmacologic (AH lesions, malignant hyperthermia, hypermetabolic disorders, monamine metabolism disturbances)
Exogenous Pyrogens
Infectious Agents
(Bacteria (live and killed)
Gram-positive
Gram-negative)
Bacterial products
(Lipopolysaccharides
Streptococcal exotoxin
Staphylococcal enterotoxin
Staphylococcal proteins)
Fungi (live and killed)
Fungal products
(Cryptococcal polysaccharide
Cryptococcal proteins)
Virus
Rickettsia
Protozoa
Nonmicrobial agents
(Soluble antigen-antibody complexes,Bile acids)
Pharmacologic agents
(Bleomycin,Colchicine,Tetracycline (cats),Levamisole (cats))
Tissue inflammation/necrosis
Major types of Endogenous Pyrogens
Tumoer Necrosis Factor, Interferon, Interleukin, Macrophage inflammatory proteins
The most important pyrogenic cytokine
Interleukin 1
Fever mechanism
Cytokines attach to receptors on vascular endothelial cells in AH and stimulate PG release (PGE2 and PGE2alpha)
Dogs at risk for heat stroke
Brachycephalic
Large Breed
Temperature and Treatment of Severe hyperthermia
107degrees
Total body cooling
Crystalloid shock dose
Corticostearoids
Total Body Cooling
Cool (not cold)water baths.
Cool water enema
Gastric lavage
Two pharmacological causes of malignant hyperthermia
Halothane
Succinylcholine
Two endocrine causes of malignant hyperthermia
hyperthyroidism
pheochromocytoma
Most common causes of FUO in cats and dogs
Infection
Tissue trauma
Neoplasia
Immune mediated
Common prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors
Salicylates
Dipyrone
Phenothiazines