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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

music samples
emerged from the Bay Area in 1960s
characteristic: electric guitar
associated with Latin rock
“Whatcha Gonna Do”
electric accordion
electric guitar
language: sings in English
two brothers were in the band
Pete and Escodo (Coke)
Pete was the father of Sheila
was the percussionist
(La Perfecta) Eddie Palmieri

music samples
“El Molestoso” (johnnynolrman)
listen to something coming out of the 1960s
recording quality sounds different
a recording now: the instruments sound more clear and present
back then, there was a different aesthetic
characteristic: TWO TROMBONE sound (according to the carp reading)
devised by Barry Rodgers, who played the trombone
ensemble compared to the Latin bands in the previous generation
really broke down ensembles
Latin ensembles of the 1950s were huge, but they broke down the sound to only two trombones
language: sings in Spanish
know significance of the two trombone sound
trumpet is higher and more clearly heard compared to the trombone
“Ajiaco claiente” (lopz33)
two trombones harmonizing together
sounds similar to the first song
“No Critiques” (puchi827766)
Eddie Palmiere y Su Conjunto La Perfecta No Critiques
still sang in Spanish with two trombone sound
group is from NYC
genre: salsa
Eddie and Charlie, his brother, were parts of this group – so is Barry Rodgers
Sunny and the Sunliners

music samples
“Talk to Me” (manuelworker)
sounds like R&B, rhythm and soul
in Texas – San Antonio
sounds like orchestra
became #1 hit in the 1960s
appeared in American Band Stand
means that they made it (equivalent to making it on Conan O’Brien)
“Put me in Jail” (brownprideoldies2)
orchestra is not as present in this song
can hear electric guitar, organ, bass

music samples
“Planta De Los Pies” (akiraboch)
(Fiesta article does a good job explaining)
vocals: female singer!
harmonizing with her brother
this is a major difference from the other songs we listened to
“Jarocho Elegua” (kingpinronin)
characteristic: song starts off with VIOLIN
foundation of Quetzal’s sound: son jarocho rhythms
jarana and fandnago
zapateado – performed on the tarima
music is informed by social location
understanding you’re from a certain place, like LA
take some elements and do something with it
no purists

music samples
“Liberation Day” (blanktv)
angry rap vocals
easy to identify because its political, rock, rapping vocals
bad brains: banned from playing in Washington DC; all black band that influenced RIcanstruction
hard core punk band
background was Afro-Latin percussion
INTERTEXUALITY: they borrow and are influenced from other groups
acoustic body
movement can be acoustic
performed by Puerto Ricans
1980s were marialito’s? famous movie about them was Scarface
article talks about the acoustic body
body is based on a sacred acoustic function of sound
echoes silent and felt but internalized sound (esp. through dance)
silent = movement
doesn’t create sound
internalization of certain aesthetics
fraternity of brotherhood; sacred principles found in Cuban
Afrika Bambaattaa
DJ from NYC in the mid 70s and early 80s
early images in hip hop
black spades were a gang
Zulu Nation
Afrika Bambaattaa was associated with them
politicizes this gang
belif that you can create community through this social conciousness
developed 4 elements of hip hop:
DJ, MC, beat boxing, graffiti
role of the DJ was more prominent early on because they were the ones writing the beats and providing the music
MC just introduced songs and hung out with the DJ
eventually, MC began rapping between songs
hip hop is a very socially conscious movement
afro-chicana zapateado
developed by Marta Gonzalez
her life story and she came across it
learned how to zapateado first here at UCLA by taking a ballet class
influenced by African music and dance
also part of the diaspora
Afro-cuban dance and percussion as well
growing up in the 1980s in LA
hip hop scene
learned how to bboy and pop and lock
son jarocho has the foundation of how to move and improvisation takes over
alternative communities of allegiance
prominent ones: black and brown
not necessarily a utopian allegiance
historical allegiance between black and brown communities
black and brown share more than economic discrimination, inequality, brutality, migration issues
coalitional unions of space and pop culture in the lives of ordinary working class people
Andy and Jerry Gonzalez
Nuyorican brothers
Latin jazz
Jerry is a trumpet player and percussionist
collaborated with La Perfecta
through him and his brother, they were the go to guys for salsa and Latin jazz in NYC
when these music scenes emerged, they were called upon to work with others
played with the majority of salsa groups
emerged out of the 60s and 70s
60s was a redefinition of the Latin music scene
they re-envisioned salsa and Latin jazz
chachacha and mambo are the same rhythms, but sped up or slowed down
added more sounds
add diversity of Afro-Cuban rhythms
this is what they did and they knew how to apply jazz
when not concerned with that type of pressure
Art Reyes the undertakers
emerged out of the punk scene in East LA in the mid 70s to early 80s
punk group from east LA
SF in the 60s
Latin rock
Santana sets in the formula with electric guitar and congas
all the groups in the bay area follow this formula
sang primarily in English
bay area music scene: musicians from SF, Oakland, San Jose, and Berkeley – all very diverse communities
see Chicanos, Latinos, blacks, whites, etc all particpate in this scene
Pete and Coco from Oakland
Aztlan Cultural Arts Center
East LA in 1990s
based in Lincoln Heights
mythical land of the Aztecs = Aztlan
significance of this center: key to the 1990s east LA music scene
places for bands to practice and perform
other young ethnicities do jobs, places to sleep, places for people to set up art studios and showings
Aztlan Underground
came out of this scene (in east LA?) in the 1990s
hard cord rock mixed with indigenous
started out as a hip hop group
borrowed from Aztec philosophies and influenced their music
indigenous hip hop group, then added a band
now sounds like a rock group
sing primarily in the indigenous Aztec language
Barry Rodgers
trombonist for Eddie Palmieri and La Perfecta
developed the two trombone sound
minimized the orchestra set up
Bay Area music scene (1970s)
Carlos Santana emerging
his brother emerged from the group – Malo
Aztecas are part of this scene
Tower of Power is a group associated with this scene too
getting into r&b, funk sound
not only Latino groups
Janis Joplin from Texas
THE GRATEFUL DEAD – another group emerging from this scene
"Be Still" by Los Lobos
comes out around 1990
Los Lobos started out playing folk music of Mexico and Latin American
primarily used mariachi and jarocho; used any instruments that were available = bricolage
song is sung in English
breaks away from traditions
even what the song is about breaks away from tradition
another case of understanding social location
black-brown relations
in LA specifically
poor people’s march
Brown Berets
influenced by the Black Panthers
main role of the Brown Berets = security and defense from the police
had long affiliations with the Black Panthers
LA Black Panthers were such a strong force; they had a stand off against the LAPD
Black Panthers and Brown Berets being in armed protection
LAPD was always against people of color
San Joaquin Valley
workers and US citizens, farm workers rights
ironic case of Cesar Chavez – one of the last to jump out of the boat to be documented
Cannibal and the Headhunters
“Land of a Thousand Dances”
it was a major hit
originally a song from Louisiana by an African American
from east LA
early 60s
Eddie David – producer/manager
believed in potential of Chicanos in American music scene
toured with the Beatles
Ceci Bastida
part of the group – Tijuana No
she was 15 when she joined the group
from Tijuana, Mexico, Baja California
now based in LA
had a Latin grammy nomination
has a lot to do with identity
if you're in the 60s and rediscovering your identity, it will affect your music and your own identity
poetry, visiual art, theater, and dance
work to reinvent, recover, and revision of a lost history/story
mestizaje = understanding your own indigenous history and philosophies
internalized depression – for example, thinking bad about yourself because you look too Spanish/indigenous, etc.
hegemony is making you believe that all those things make you wrong
rediscovering history is a powerful thing
find the resources
way to empower yourself once you discover your Chicano identity
Chicano Movement
happens in the 1960s – 1970s
have the student movement
movement emerging out of neighborhoods/communities
all the walk outs happen in 1968
then starts to happen in East LA and Texas
then happens in middle schools and high schols
revisioning of the arts
moratorium – 1970s
people marched about war in Vietnam
disproportionate number of Chicanos and Blacks being sent to Vietnam and they died
Chicano Movement music
come out of Teatro Campesino
one of the first groups to produce this raw bricolage theater in the Central Valley
part of the farm workers movement
also provided a lot of music for it
Based on folk sounds
played lead role in zoot suit
Flora de Community has protest songs too
Los Lobos come out of this
these musicians were solidified in their positions and social locations as Chicanos
commercialization of rumba in Cuba
tourism plays a role in it in Cuba
the Cuban revolution made Afro-Cuban culture part of its identity
rumba becomes nationalized and sent out to places like NYC
(part of an article for this week)
Corky Gonzalez
one of the male leaders of the Chicano movement
he wrote “I am Joaquin”
talks about the realization of your own Chicano identity and social location
organized the Denver Youth Conference
from La Lupe and Hector Lavoe article
oral traditions of popular and oppressed groups are integrated into official history
La Lupe – counter the memory of the official Latino history in the US because she was excluded from it
Hector Lavoe – one of the first salsa singers, included in history
cruzando frontejas
idea of Latin American crossover in the context of Selena
crossover often formulated as being unidirectional from lower to higher ground (ie. Mexico to the US)
instead, cruzando frontejas is about the development of a third culture at the Mexican-American border in Texas
straddling the line
allows for a better understanding of movement of music
acknowledges movement of Selena’s music into new markets – both the American and Latin American markets
Cypress Hill
the only actual west coast, LA-based artists signed to Nacional Records
part of the Chicano rap scene
emerged out of marginalized communities and had new expressions
contributed to the west coast style and started being recognized nationally in the hip hop scene
highly successful multi-racial (esp. Latino) hip hop group
social critique and conciousness
Danny Valdez
part of Chicano movement music
Denver Youth Conference
self determination among Chicanos
spread Chicano nationalism
Plan of Aztlan emerged from this
document that outlined what Chicanos are supposed to do in this movement
manifestation for social activism for Chicanos
Dick "Huggy Boy" Hugg
one of the first white DJs to play in Dolphin’s window
drumset in Latin jazz
new generation of Latin jazz in the Bronx
tradition started to meet innovation
rearranging of rhythmic structure in order to make space for the drums
still played bomba, plena, rumba, bata
incorporated jazz drummers
drumset found space in Afro-Carribean rhythms
Eddie Palmieri
part of the New York salsa scene
came into his own with his brother and created new sounds in the 60s and 70s
political movements in the barrio influenced the writing of their songs
two trombone sound
started reorganizing the sound of Latin music
this starts taking over the modern sound
still managed to maintain the Latin sound
full orchestration
extended solo songs
Fania Allstars
Johnny Pacheco
Jerry Masucci
Ray Barretto
Larry Harlow
Bobby Valentine
Willie Colon
becomes synonymous with salsa in New York
had an attacking, energetic sound = hard salsa
later in the 1990s, they became soft, romantic salsa
Flor del Pueblo
part of Chicano movement music
foundations of hip hop
break beat DJing
they were the real stars of the hip hop scene
bboys and bgirls
MC (rapping)
Freddy Fender
came out and started gaining popularity but ended up being jailed
part of rock in Tejas
Hector Lavoe
one of the first salsa singers
cemented in history because of his gender
a part of gangster rap that emerged
in early hip hop scene with (Kid) Frost
imaginative rediscovery
part of Chicanidad
imaginative re-discovery idea developed by Stuart Hall
identity and socially locating oneself
people started expressing themselves as chicanos
work to reinvent, recover, and revision a lost history of Chicanas and Chicanos
immigration and immigrants
many attitudes towards immigration
reassessment of ethnic identity and attitude
influence of cultural activists on this political issue
artists and musicians at univeristies were pushing this agenda on immigration and younger Chicano students were getting involved
focused on immigration communities
there was already pressure to distinguish Mexicans from Mexican Americans
campaigns from different organizations to pick up immigration issues
the only issue that was successful in bringing in every Mexican American/Latino association together = synergy
last person on board = Cesar Chavez
it was an issue of class, gender, ethnicity, culture, and race
the idea of belonging was very ambiguous
needed help understanding where they were located in society
started recognizing the idea of belonging neither here nor there
focus on immigration was to reposition themselves
create personal identity
in between culture
idea that you can express, anywhere outside Tijuana, anything you perceive of Tijuana such as sounds, signs, forms
challenged notions and stereotypes
reconfigured and sampled elements of norteno and banda while also incorporating new sounds
challenged to join the European-US market for not sounding “Mexican”
stereotypical perception that when you come from an area, you should sound like you came from that area
caused a reconfiguration of sound
forces artists to look at their roots and where they’re going at the same time
intertextuality of reconstruction
gave voice to the struggles of barrio communities through radical music
punk, hip hop, reggae, and “riot-like” sounds
it challenged stereotypical notions of what it means to be Puerto Rican
stayed out of the mainstream to be part of street art
it was about both a punk band and a social justice organization
hybrid cultural practices and identity
John Dolphin
post-war radio
helped in the dispersion of Afro-Chicano musical forms after WWII
he was all about the money, so hired DJs to play music from the front store window
pioneer of the independent record label
prime factor in the emergence of R&B on the west coast
created a thriving interracial space
Kid Frost
in the scene in the early 80s with Ice T
hung out with them and battled other MCs
La Raza – late 1980s
Hispanic Causing Panic (1990)
"Kiko" by Los Lobos
explored different sounds and styles
took them out of the mainstream
explored different technologies and soundscapes in their music
La Lupe
when it comes to salsa history, counter the memory of the official Latino history in the US because she was excluded from it
always considered a little bit too far out and challenged hegemony
had a cult following
always juxtaposed against Celia Cruz
Latin Alternative
happens in 1990s up until now
believed to be the next phase after rock en espanol
rock en espanol
limited to only rock music
now have hip hop music
included rock, electronica, hip hop, funk
not limited to a certain type
is more of an umbrella term
Nacional Records
signed groups coming out of Mexico
promoted them around the US and the world
Latin rock
like 1960s Chicano rock
included Cannibal and the Headhunters
Lil Julian Herrera
“I Remember Linda”
worked with Johnny Otis
real name was Ron Gregory
Hungarian Jew from New York
went to look for his family in LA and ended up being adopted/taken in by a Mexican family
Los Angeles uprising 1990s
came with proposition 187, which denied social services to people of immigrant status
it attacked youth so that they couldn’t go to school
people started to come together, building connections, dialogues, interactions transnationally to create a civil society
Los Lobos
played both Mexican folk music and punk rock music in Hollywood
punk rock is about angst, anger, energy
people are always yelling, slam dancing, letting out energy
many different responses when they would play Mexican folk music ad punk concerts, but this is the scene where they got their fame
go back and forth between blues, country, rock-a-billy, soul, Mexican folk, and Tex-Mex
had success and music satisfaction with the success of “La Bamba,” but then return to Mexican folk music and kind of fall out of the limelight/mainstream
Luis Valdez
part of the Chicano student movement
Milton Cardona
part of the Bronx Latin jazz era
was one of the new generation of musicians
bata jazz
a place where tradition met innovation
rhythmic structure change to include the drums
about African heritage in Mexico
development of Chicano participation in hip hop throughout the southwest
development of Cypress Hill and Kid Frost
Nacional record label
one of the first instances where Latin Alternative was used as a term through this label
people believed that Latin Alternative was a better term than Rock en Espanol
music of the music scene started having techno/hip hop sounds and the term Latin Alternative better encompassed this diversity
primarily focused on international groups, no real Latin Alternative groups from the US signed to the label except for Pacha Massive and Eric Bobo
about being able to express, anywhere outside Tijuana, anything you perceive of Tijuana such as sounds, signs and forms
challenged the notions and stereotypes of Tijuana through music, visualization, and zines
border – Tijuana; away from Mexico’s center and was at the margins of culture
had many DJs
reconfigured and sampled elements of norteno and banda
challenged to join European-US market for not sounding “Mexican”
forced them to reconfigure their sound
stereotypical perception that when you come from an area, you should sound like you come from there
Papo Vasquez
part of the Bronx Latin jazz era
played plena and bomba
Peace and Justice Center
claim of space
a community center
place where people could come together since they were predominantly ethnic and musical production for bands and music started happening
neighborhood allowed for this kind of development
Pete Escovedo
part of Azteca, Latin popular music
associated with Latin rock
from the bay area
polyculturalism and reconstruction
reconstruction gave voice to the struggles of barrio communites through radical music
a combination of punk, hip hop, reggae, and “riot-like” sounds
challenged stereotypical notions of what it meant to be Puerto Rican
stayed out of the mainstream in order to be street art
hybrid cultural practices and identity
condition is evident around the nation
there are no jobs and people end up being field workers and doing custodial work, institutional work, maintenance – not productive
about synergy
people started becoming conscious of the effects
Proposition 187
came during the Los Angeles uprising in 1992
denied social services to people of immigrant status
attacked youth so that they couldn’t go to school
Mexican folk fusion
incorporated instruments of different folk forms (rumba or jarocho) but also utilize dance as a central component of forming music
centered in the idea of organizing as musicians
considered contemporary rock, Latin dance
one of the more popular groups to come out of the 1990s
political accountability
transnational dialogues
much more involved with the convivencia (conviviality)
racialized fantasies
Los Angeles entertains a “set of racialized fantasies”
a “southwestern outpost of white supremacy”
there are two visions of this era in LA
Boyle Heights
abuse and denigration of “unfavorable” neighborhoods
rent parties
punk bands would play in garages, at people’s homes, etc. in order to get their music out there
they would play and help raise money for community members to help pay rent
development of expressive culture
this is really where it all started
even today, punk music is still played in these types of environments
emerged from the barrios
came from backyards because it was cheaper – it was a space that could be utilized
all about DIY
you see all of these different people (parents grandparents etc) attending to support the scene because it was also supporting them
revival of tradition
music of Puerto Rico
music became highly transnational
started integrating tradition with more contemporary forms
reconstruction gave voice to the struggles of barrio communites through radical music
a combination of punk, hip hop, reggae, and “riot-like” sounds
challenged stereotypical notions of what it meant to be Puerto Rican
stayed out of the mainstream in order to be street art
hybrid cultural practices and identity
Ricanstruction itself was a punk band and a social justice organization
Richard Colon - "Crazy Legs"
one of the Latinos in hip hop early on in the development of Latin hip hop culture
Ricky Garay
co-manager of La Cita
place for Latin Alternative music to be played
started events called Mucho Wednesdays
promoter of Latin music in LA
Ritchie Valens
had hit “Donna” and “La Bamba”
part of 1950s Chicano rock counterculture
integration of black music (blues, R&B) with rock
there was a lot of reference to interreferentiality – we were living in the same neighborhoods, growing up in the same way
polyculturalism – we were listening to black music because we could hear it
his significance and the significance of his record: presence in mainstream rock pantheon is extremely important in him putting a Latino/Chicano/Mexican American into that ground and making an icon of representation
part of the experimentation in blues – 1970s Latin rock
reemergence during the Latin Explosion
really embodied cruzando frontejas
was part of a third culture, the culture of Texas-Mexicans
experienced a different kind of lifestyle
didn’t quite belong as Americans but weren’t Mexican enough
crossed over in the sense that she developed a specific Tejano sound and then distributed that both to the north and south
distribution of an “American” music form because it is about Texas Mexican-Americans but was new to Americans as well as Latin Americans
Self-Help Graphics
venue where artists could do their work and a venue for them to share their work
did workshops and sold their work
had a big hall that could be rented out
Thursday nights, turned into a club for punk music
a place where bands started demerging and developing a claim of space