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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
subset of normative ethics that focuses on particular ethicla problem areas
Applied Ethics
discourse that tries to provide reasons for or proof of some view: an attempt to convince through rational discussion
argument
a branch of ethics that compares the different ethical beliefs of different groups of people
comparative ethics
the claim that the argument is attemtpting to establish or prove; supposed to follow from the premises or starting assumptions
conclusion
words that are employed in the description of human conduct, such as rightness and wrongness
deontic terms
the study of ethical beliefs that have been held by different groups of people in different places and times
descriptive ethics or non-normative ethics
subset of normative ethics that focuses on ethical priciples that apply throughout all situations
ethical theory
based on mistaken ideas: inconsistent with facts
false
being without foundation or force in fact, truth or law
invalid
branch of ethics that studies general ethical concepts and attempts to explain the meaning of terms such as right, wrong, good, adn bad
Metaethics
consists of particular judgements about actions and people; makes prescriptive attempts to tell which things are right or wrong, good or bad
normative or prescriptive ethics
the love of wisdom
philosophy
claims that are to be accepted before an argument begins
premises and assumptions
logically necessary; free from error, fallacy, or misapprehension
sound
applies in some way to all rational beings
universalizable
the philosophical study of the activity of evaluation
value theory
the belief that ethical value is relative to culture or society
cultural or social relativism
the belief that the study of ethics tries to describe necessary features of reality; the belief that principles of ethics apply and have always applied to everyone
ethical absolutism
the belief that ethical principles depend upon features that can vary at different times in different places
ethical relativism
the belief that ethical judgments apply to all humans equally, that there are universal ethical truths, and that these truths are the same for everyone
ethical universalism
the ethical theory that holds that the ethical value of an action is relative not to the culture as a whole, but to the individual him or herself
individual relativism
the belief that there is no such thing as ethical value at all
moral nihilism
an ethical belief that doubts that ethical value exists
moral skepticism
the belief that there is a standard external to the persom making ethical judgements against which those judgements can be helps
objectivism
the belief that ethical judgments are relative to the individaul person, or subject, making the judgment
subjectivism
unselfish regard for, or devotion to, the welfare of others
altruism
the belief that one always ought to do what is in one's own self interest
ethical egoism
Plato's story about a shepherd that makes himself invisible in order to do self serving acts
Gyges' Ring
principle that tells us that if we ought to do something, then it must be possible for us to do it
ought-implies-can
the belief that all human motivation is self interested
psychological egoism
terms used to describe a theory that is true by stipulative definition; substansively empty or meaningless
unfalsibliable or definitionally irrefutable
ethical theory that says that what is right is what God commands
Divine Command Theory
the belief that an ethical system is justified if it is the most coherent thing to believe of all the available options
coherentism
the belief that an ethical principle is justified if all free and equal rational people would accept it
contractarianism
a justifiaction of morality based on what promotes the "good life"
eudaemonism
to justify something is to prove that it is just, right, or valid; gives reasons why we should care about morality
justification of morality
the belief that the first principles of morality must be self-evident, obviously true, or impossible to deny
foundationalism
the belief that an element of faith must be involved in accepting morality because we cannot prove anything
rational faith
that belief that our acceptance of morality must be based on our sentimental dispositions and not on any rational proof
sentimentalism
cultural continuity in social attitudes, customs, and institutions; one metaethical theory holds that morality only makes sense within a tradition
tradition
ethical theory that says that people attribute to ethical values such as queer properties that it is highly implausable that such values can actually exist
argument for queerness
ethical theory that says that the vast differences between different people's ethical judgments are best explained by taking ethical beliefs to be functions of how people are socialized and not of their response to any real objective features of the world
argument from relativity
the belief that ethical judgment involves an attempt to gain knowledge about the world
cognitivism
the belief that an ethical judgment is simply the expression of an emotion and does not describe the world at all
emotivism
the belief that the entire activity of ethical judgment is built upon erroneous belief that ethical value exists in the world
error theory
the belief that ethical value does not exist so, consequently, ethical judgments do not make true claims
ethical or moral anti-realism
the belief that ethical value does exist and that some of our ethical judgments make true claims about it
ethical or moral realism
the belief that ethical properties cannot be reduced to any other kind of property, and that ethicla properties have a unique kind of existance that cannot be grasped through the five senses and explained by science
intuitionism
one of te most prominent error theorists; developed the arguement from relativity and the arguement from queerness
John Mackie
the metaethical view that all ethical values are identical to natural properties
naturalism
a line of thinking that says it is erroneous or fallacious to claim that an ethical property is identical to a natural property
naturalistic fallacy
the belief that ethical judgment does not involve an attempt to gain knowledge about the world
non-cognitivism
contention that any effore to define the good must fail, since it always remains possible to ask significantly whether or not the proposed definition is actually good
Open Question Argument
ethical theories that prescribe a certain kind of conduct
Prescriptive Ethical Theories
A belief that emphasizes that ethical judgments prescribes courses of actions and do not describe states of affairs in the world
prescriptivism