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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Divine Command
-no representative
-middle ground /b/ relativism and absolutism
-"to do right is to do what God commands"
*which God?
Cultural Relativism
-William Graham Sumner
-everyone is right because they're following their own folkways, which are specific to their own society
-"to do right is to act according to the customs and traditions of one's society"
Virtue Theory
(compare to Natural Law)
-purpose of man = to be virtuous
*brings about happiness
*everything has a purpose
*humanity at the top of existence b/c of our ability to REASON
-virtue developed through habitual action
*becomes second nature, but not ABSOLUTE
-average /b/ 2 vices (deficiency and excess)
-"to do right is to BE virtuous"
*how can you truly know someone is virtuous and not just ACTING
*when do you become virtuous?
Natural Law
(compare to Virtue Theory)
-St. Thomas Aquinas
-Euthyphro Dilemma
-"to do right is to avoid violating the natural purpose of things according to God"

[compare to Virtue Theory]
--similar: natural purpose, reason/rationality
--different: God = source of reason and purpose, God at top of existence
Social Contract
-Thomas Hobbes
-state of nature (CHAOS)
*world at earliest state of humanity
-social contract = gov't
*created out of chaos
*agreement to create and follow gov't
*protection from chaos
-basis of Absolutism/Enlightened Despotism
-"to do right is to follow the law"
*ethical to break the law when gov't stops protecting people from chaos
*give up freedom to gain security
-problem: no unjust law
-David Hume
-no wrong or right, only how one FEELS
*breakdown of public morality? (church's opinion)
-SELF PRESERVATION prevents people from doing whatever they feel like
*don't want to fall victim to their own behavior
-need for LAW
-"to do right is to do what you FEEL is right"
*no proof
*just b/c you FEEL something is right doesn't make it so
-John Stuart Mill
-Greatest Happiness Principle
*morality equated to amount of happiness
*personal happiness sacrificed for communal happiness
-quality vs. quantity
-long term vs. short term
-"to do right is to do what produces the most happiness"
*when is your own happiness worth more or less tan the happiness of the greater good?
~*the end justfies the means
*how can you predict the future and know for sure which will produce the most happiness?
Categorical Imperative
-Immanuel Kant
-all imperatives: hypothetical or categorical
*hypothetical: should produce desired result
*categorical: good in itself (required for the world to function, for society to exist)
~TEST OF UNIVERSALITY: if society cannot exist by permitting an action then it is a categorical imperative
~IE: don't like, don't kill innocent people, don't steal
-end DOES NOT justify the means
*rational beings = means to an end (no manipulation of humans)
*can't predict the future, so categorical imperatives let people know how to act (?)
-"to do right is to act in ways that can be willed to be Universal Laws
-Ayn Rand
-PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM: people always act in their best interest
*self interest = acting in a way that benefits oneself
*selfish: acting in a way that benefits oneself while EXLCUDING others' needs
-"to do right is to act in one's own self interest"
Female Ethic
-Carol Gilligan
-women > men
*assumptions: different ethics /b/ men and women (superiority of one group over another)
-important to women:
*concern for ALL parties
-women are better at ethics than men b/c they take into account all their traits with those of a man (logical, rational, etc.)