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56 Cards in this Set

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What was the arguement called that says pornpgraphy is wrong?
The Modern Arguement
Who was behind the Modern Arguement?
Ann Garry
What is Ann Garry's arguement in premise conclusion form?
1) It is harmful to women because it transmits/teaches two dangerous messages
2) Creates a lack of respect for women
What two messages does pornography teach?
a) women mean yes when they say no
b) women want to be raped
What does pornography show women as?
sex objects
Who says that pornography is right?
James A. Gould
What is James A. Gould's arguement?
1) There is no proof that porn causes crime and violence
2) Porn may reduce crime and violence because of its cathartic effect
3) educational
4) enjoyable
5) freedom of speech/expression
6) wrong to censor pornography because of you do censor it you open the door to further censorsip
7) porn is artistic and art is good
8) 9th amendment
What were Gould's examples of "no proof that porn creates crime and violence?"
a) Obscenity commission -no evidence
b) Meese commission- it may or may not cause c&v
What was the example of "porn may reduce c&v?"
-until 1966, porn was illegal in Denmark
-in four years, c&v dropped by 50% in Denmark
what amendment is the right to freedom of speech?
the first
What are some ways that humans use animals?
1) test products
2) clothing
3) pets
4) products
5) food - kills more than any other way
6) transportation
7) income
8) religious services
Who says that it is wrong to use animals for food?
Peter Singer
What does Peter Singer believe in?
Specisism
what is speciesism?
discriminating against something because it is a different species
What does sentient mean?
the capeability of experiencing pleasure and pain
What is Peter Singer's arguement in p/c form?
1) animals are sentient beings
2) It is wrong to make sentient being suffer without good reason
3) The belief that animals can't think is not a good reason to make animals suffer
4) The process of using animals for food is painful for the animals
5) the process of using animals for food wastes food
6) If we did not waste food in this manner there would be enough food to feed everyone
7) A vegetarian diet is as nutritious as an animal based diet
c) therefore it is wrong to use animals for food
What is the arguement for the rightess of using animals for food?
1) If humans did not use animals for food, it would be harmful to the animals
2) If humans did not use animals for food, it would be harmful to humans
3) The process of using animals for food does not waste food
4) The process of using animals for food is natural
c) Therefore it is right to use animals for food
Why would it be harmful to animals if we did not use animals for food?
- overpopulation
- starvation
- disease
- more roadkill
- species
Why would it be harmful to humans if we did not use animals for food?
- nutrition
- accidents
- disease
- economic ruin
- attack from animals
What are other ways that animals are used other then food?
- leather
- warmth
- clothing
- feathers
- fertilizer
- medicine
- glue
What is the arguement that censorship is right?
1) Our behavior is shaped by our environment
2) Some of the things we see, hear, and read create bad ethical behavior
3) the development of good ethical behavior is more important than the freedom of expression
c) Therefore censorship is right
Who popularized the arguement that censorship is right?
Plato
What examples did mr. n. use of music?
- Ozzy: pedophilia
- Nirvana: violence toward women
- kiss: teenage sex
- Ac/Dc: ?
- ?: Suicide
If censorship were allowed, who would do it?
the government
What is affirmative Action?
giving preferenial treatment to groups of people
What was the arguement called that said AA is right?
the Pendulum Arguement
What is the essence of the pendulum arguement?
- there has been discrimination in America's history
- there are lingering effects from past discrimination
What is the Pendulum Arguement?
1) Many groups have been discriminated against in the past
2) these groups today are experiencing the lingering effects of past discrimination
3) in order to overcome the lingering effects of past discrimination, affirmative action is necessary
4) the goal of AA is equality
c) Therefore AA is right
What did the 15th amendment say?
you can't deny someone the right to vote because of their race
what did whites do as a result of the 15th amendment?
they passed laws calling for literacy tests
What act outlawed literacy tests?
the Voting Rights Act of 1965
What is the arguement that says that literacy tests are ethically right?
1) If you can't read, you can't be informed on the issues
2) Uninformed voters could make bad political decisions
3) potentially everyone can be harmed by these bad political decisions
c) therefore it is right to prevent illiterate people from voting
What is segregation?
separation
What were some things that were segregated in the US?
- schools
- drinking fountains
- cafés
- hotels
- buses
- baseball
What law made segregation legal?
Plessy vs. Fergusson
What is the arguement that says that segregation is right?
1) Racial purity is good
2) Integration allows the races to interact
3) If races interact, they will breed
4) the purity of the white race & the purity of the black race will be destroyed
c) Therefore segregation is right
What two things happened to help end segregation in America?
1) Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
2) Civil Rights Act of 1964
What did Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka discuss?
Seperate but equal in public education
What did Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka decide?
segregation is no longer allowed in public education
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 say?
there is to be no discrimination based on race:
- in businesses open to the public
- when it comes to employment
What is the arguement that says AA is wrong?
1) AA is potentially harmful to everyone
2) AA is harmful to the people that AA is trying to help
3) AA is discriminatory and discrimination is wrong
4) AA is misplaced punishment
c) Therefore AA is wrong
How is AA harmful to everyone?
less qualified people are hired
How is AA harmful to the people it is trying ot help?
- it teaches people that they can't compete and aren't equal
- sets them up to fail
- it is an incentive to under-acheive
- many will appear to be tokens under AA even if they aren't
- backlash
What kind of discrimination is AA called?
reverse discrimination
Who said he was a victim of reverse discrimination?
Alan Bakke
What was the case that said that reversed discrimination is wrong?
Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke
What is euthanasia?
if it has/is:
1) killing
2) intentional
3) one who is killed must be suffering form some type of ailment from which there is not reasonable hope of surviving
What is the arguement that says euthanasia is right?
1) E. prevents suffering for the one who is euthanized
2) E. prevents the suffering of those who aren't euthanized
3) E. is a matter of personal choice
c) Therefore e. is right
What two kinds of euthanasia are there?
1) voluntary
2) directed euthanasia
What is voluntary euthanasia?
when the person who is euthanized gives consent to be euthanized
what is directed euthanasia?
when the person who is euthanized has not given consent to be euthanized
who says euthanasia is wrong?
J. Gay Williams
what is the arguement that says euthanasia is wrong?
1) euthanasia goes against human nature
2) God says it is wrong
3) the medical profession is not perfect
4) knowing that we can choose to die takes away our will to survive
5) If euthanasia is allowed, doctors and nurses might not do everything possible to save a patient
6) if euthanasia is allowed, where will it end?
c) Therefore eithanasia is wrong
What is the (worldly) goal to the human life?
to survive
What does "the medical profession is not perfect" mean?
Doctors may say someone only has a few months to live, but they might be wrong.
What does backlash mean in the context of AA?
when you create what it is that you're trying to eliminate