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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is another name for Siddhartha Gautama?
Buddah (the one who knows the enlightened one)
What is philosophy?
The love of wisdom or knowledge.
What did John Stuart Mill popularize?
Utilitarianism
Who popularized Altrusm?
Siddhartha Gautama
Who popularized Utilitarianism?
John Stuart Mill
What are the potential problems with the Divine Command?
1) Which God?

2) Which version text?

3) Which passage?

4) What does the passage say?

5) Was the passage translated properly?

6) How do we know God said it?

7) How do we know God exists?
What is a Consequential Ethical Rule?
an ethical rule that uses a balance of consequences to determine the rightness or wrongness of an act.
What does the rule that John Stuart Mill popularized say?
-an act is right if it creates a positive balance of consequences for everyone affected by the act

-vice versa
What is Ethics?
The study of the rightness & wrongness of actions.
Who popularized Egoism?
Socrates
What does the Divine Command say?
-an act is right if God says it is right.

-vice versa
What does the rule that Siddhartha Gautama popularized say?
-an act is right if it creates a positive balance of consequences for everyone affected by the act except the agent.

-vice versa
What is a perfect ethical rule?
an ethical rule that answers every normative ethical question correctly
What did Siddhartha Gautama popularize?
Ethical Altruism
What does the rule that Socrates popularized say?
-an action is right if it creates a positive balance of consequences for the agent

-vice versa
Ethics is actions in relation to...?
humans, animals, environment, and God
What is a Non Consequential Ethical Rule?
an ethical rule that does not use a balance of consequences to determine the rightness and wrongness of an act.
What is a Normative Ethical Question?
Any question of ethical rightness or wrongness.
What are ethical rules?
1) definition of rightness & wrongness

2) a guidline or principle that tells us what is right or wrong.
What did Socrates poplularize?
Ethical Egoism
Who popularized Endship?
Immanual Kant
What did Thomas Hobbs popularize?
Legal Rights
What is Reversibility?
-an act is right if the agent is willing to be on the receiving end of the act.

-vice versa
"Why is there no perfect ethical rule?"
a) Cultural Relativism - what is right and wrong varies from culture to culture

b) Individual Relativism - what is right & what is wrong varies from person to person
What is Universalizability/Categorical Imperative?
-an act is right if the agent is willing for everyone to do the act

-vice versa
What did Immanual Kant popularize?
Endship and Universalizability/Categorical Imperative
"What is the perfect ethical rule?"
a) any one of the 8 or a combination there of

b) we haven't found it yet
What influenced Thomas Hobbs to think what he thought?
1) 30 years war

2) English Revolution - 1640's

3) Witchcraze - 1550-1650
What is an end?
someone who makes their own decisions
What does the Radical Theory say?
It is wrong to give aid to the people of poor countries.
Who is everyone affected?
-the givers (rich people)

-the receivers (poor people)
What does Endship say?
-an act is right if it treats others as ends

-vice versa
Who popularized Legal Rights?
Thomas Hobbs (350 years ago)
Who popularized Universalizability/Categorical Imperative?
Immanual Kant
What is the current day philosopher behind the Radical Theory?
Garrett Hardin
What does Ethical Relativism say?
there is no perfect ethical rule
What does Ethical Absolutism say?
There is a perfect ethical rule
What does Garrett Hardin say?
-It is wrong to give (any kind of) aid to the people of poor countries

-it is in the best interest of everyone affected by the act that no aid be given.
What does the rule that Thomas Hobbs popularized say?
-an act is right if it's legal

-vice versa
What does the Liberal Theory say?
It is right to give aid to the people of poor countries.
What are the three comparisons given by Hardin?
1) People on the life boat - people of rich nations

2) People in water - people of poor nations

3) People on life boat giving aid to people in water - rich nations giving aid to the people of poor nations
What do Hardin's comparisons mean?
When people of rich nations give aid to people of poor nations, the safety valve of the rich nation goes down. When the safety valve goes down, the chance of survival goes down.
What did Hardin say about the receivers?
Poor nations become dependent on the aid, but if aid is stopped, poor nations have incentive to become economically independent.
What is an argument?
an attempt to prove a point
What are the 2 points to an argument?
Premise(s) and conclusion
What is a Premise?
a) a piece of evidence that supports a conclusion

b) a reason why the conclusion is truthful
What is the conclusion?
the point that's being made in the agrument
Who is the current day philosopher behind the Liberal Argument?
Peter Singer
What are the premises to the Liberal Argument?
1) If you can prevent something bad from happening, you must.

2) The suffering that results from a lack of food is bad.

3) Affluent people can prevent the pain & suffering that result from a lack of food.
What is the conclusion to the Liberal Argument?
Therefore, affluent people must give aid to the people of poor countries.
What is an affluent person?
anyone who has any money left over once the necessities have been paid
What are the necessities?
anything needed for survival
How much most be given according to Peter Singer and why?
All of the extra:

if you can prevent something bad from happening, you must.
What was the Manhattan Project?
the dozens of scientists that built the atomic bomb
When was the first atomic bomb finished?
summer (July) 1945
Who was the president during WW2?
Harry Truman
What was the warning issued to Japan?
The Potsdam Declaration
What did the Potsdam Declaration say?
"Surrender unconditionally by Aug. 3 or you will be completely destroyed."
When and where was the first bomb dropped?
August 6, 1945 - Hiroshima
When and where was the second bomb dropped?
August 9, 1945 - Nagasaki
What were the conditions under which Japan would surrender?
They could keep their emperor: Hirohito
What were the premises for the wrongness of the action (Japan)?
1) Unnecessary

2) Civilians

3) Misplaced Aggression
a) scare Soviet Union
b) trying to prevent the
Soviet Union from
getting spoils
What were the premises for the rightness of the action (Japan)?
1) Japan was given a choice

2) It was in the best interest of everyone affected (saved many lives)

3) People who were killed were not "innocent civilians" (they made the weapons)

4) Japan was responsible for beginning the war, as such was resposible for everything that happened during

5) Machiavelli (book: Prince) (In politics the end always justifies the means)