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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Genetic engineering (2)
taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either Transferring them to another organism
Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations
genetically enhanced organisms
Why is fermentation biotechnology?
Uses microorganisms:
Yeast + sugar = ethanol + CO2
What is genetics?
Study of the inheritance of genetic traits
What is a gene?
Sequences of DNA that code for protein
central dogma of molecular biology
DNA --> RNA --> protein
What is Pedigree Analysis?
Presentation and scrutiny of genetic information through a family tree or pedigree
What does A family tree (drawn with genetic symbols) show?
shows inheritance patterns for specific phenotypic characters
Why do Pedigree Analysis? (2)
1. Controlled experimental crosses cannot be made with humans
2. Generation time is too long
Properties of people who are Autosomal dominant (3)
1. Only one chromosome needs to carry mutation (A)
2. Most affected individuals are heterozygous (Aa)
3. Affected individuals (hets) have a 50% chance of passing trait/disease onto each child
variable number of tandem repeats; Vary from person to person (polymorphic)
VNTR Characteristics (2)
1. Not in coding regions
2. Not associated with any phenotype
VNTRs are visualized by what method?
PCR (polymerase Chain Reaction)
Use ___ rule to calculate probability of two independent events occurring simultaneously
Product Rule
Genome =
All the genetic information in an individual
Pharmacogenomics =
the study of how an individual's genetic inheritance affects the body's response to drugs
Human Genome Project =
Sequence of the entire human genome; Completed in 2003
DNA Microarrays =
Matching sequences bind to each other and a computer records location and intensity of binding
SNPs =
1. Single Nucleotide
2. Polymorphisms Single-base differences in a DNA sequence among individuals in the population
Justice . . .
“How and to whom do we distribute scarce resources?”
Distributive Justice is concerend with ___
Concerned with just distribution of benefits and burdens
Formal principle of justice =
similar cases ought to be treated in similar ways
7 Comparative Material Principles
1. Principle of equality
2. Principle of need
3. Principle of contribution
4. Principle of effort
5. Principle of social worth
6. Principle of blame
7. Principle of consequences
Noncomparative Justice
Principle which does not compare needs, contribution, etc.
E.g., “first come, first serve,” lottery
Critiques of Justice:
1. Deliberately does not treat people equally
2. Can privilege “the fewer”
3. What distribution standard to use, e.g., need, effort, etc.?
Goal of Gene Transfer
“The introduction of a fully functional and expressible gene into a target cell, resulting in permanent correction of a specific genetic disease”
Somatic gene transfer:
Target is a tissue or organ
e.g. lung epithelial cells of cystic fibrosis patient
Germline gene transfer:
Target is eggs or sperm
Passed on to offspring
phospholipid bilayers arranged into spherical micelles
Clone =
exact genetic copy of something
ex: DNA, Cell, Organism
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Imprinting = (2)
1. Some genes are expressed only from mother, some from father
2. Heritable imprint made on DNA
What are Stem Cells?
Self-renewing, unspecialized cells that can give rise to multiple types of specialized cells of the body through differentiation
Where can stem cells be obtained from?
Obtained from embryonic, fetal, and adult tissues
Differentiation =
Process by which dividing, unspecialized cells are equipped to perform specific functions (e.g. muscle contraction or nerve cell communication)
Pluripotent =
Can give rise to cells of all three germ layers (mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm). Cannot form placental tissues. Example: ES cells
Totipotent =
Having unlimited capability
Multipotent =
cells that can differentiate into cells of multiple germ layers
where are embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from?
Isolate cells from inner cell mass(ICM) of blastocyst
Embryonic Germ Cells
The cells that normally develop into gametes; Isolated from aborted fetuses
Adult Stem Cells
Undifferentiated cells found in differentiated tissue that can renew themselves and (with certain limitations) differentiate to yield all the specialized cell types of the tissue from which they originate
Ability of an adult stem cell from one tissue to generate the specialized cell type(s) of another tissue.
Passaging Cells =
process of removing cells from one culture dish and replating them into fresh culture dishes
Feeder Cells
need feeder layer because embryonic stem cells need growth factors and also need to touch other cells in order to thrive and replicate
Council’s Ethical Standard on stem cells (related to research)
not destroying or endangering human embryos in the process of obtaining pluripotent stem cells for research
The council's Four Proposals on obtaining hES for research
1. Only those embryos that are thawed and die spontaneously during efforts to produce a child will be eligible
2. derived from blastomeres obtained by biopsy of an early human embryo
3. derived from the engineering of “biological artifacts”
4. “dedifferentiate” the somatic cells to form pluripotent stem cells
What does ELSI stand for re. Human Genome Project?
Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of genome research
WHAT is a:Genetically Modified, Genetically Engineered, Transgenic organism?
A living organism that harbors an inserted functional gene in its germ line
Recombinant DNA:
a sequence comprising DNA from different sources that have been joined together.
A DNA molecule used to transfer foreign DNA into a host cell or organism (e.g. plasmids)
An extrachromosomal circular double-stranded DNA molecule that replicates independently from the chromosome; frequently modified for use as a cloning vector
Plasmid Vector required components (3)
1. origin of replication
2. selectable marker (Ampr)
3. MCS (multiple cloning site)