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30 Cards in this Set

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a position of doubt about the reality or truth-sensitivity of moral claims
moral skepticism
____ ____ doubts that the claim "killing is wrong" can be true or false
moral skeptics
name three philosophers that make arguments from moral skepticism
david hume, j.l. mackie, gilbert harmon
____ would argue that it is no contradiction of reason to prefer killing to not killing
hume
the denial of moral facts, moral truths, and moral knowledge.
moral nihilism
a _____ _____ would deny that there is anything that is truly wrong with killing an innocent person
moral nihilist
____ and _____ both argue against the position that moral facts or moral values are "real"
gilbert harmon and j l mackie
the position that ethical claims are merely proclamations of an agent's attitude toward a subject
emotivism or non-cognitivism
an _______ would say that the utterance "killing is wrong!" is logically identical to the utterance "i dont have a taste for killing" or "killing, Boo!"
emotivist
the doctrine that all facts of the world are natural facts of the world, therefore, if there are moral facts they must be underwritten by natural facts
naturalism
____ argue that socio-biology can give us a better understanding of morality than the philisophical study of ethics
naturalists
hume may be said to endorse a _______ approach to the study of ethics when he argues what three points?
naturalistic.

1. reason cannot have any affect on action

2. moral sentiment appears to have an effect on action

3. our moral concepts must be based upon passion rahter than reason
_____ may deny there is an is/ought gap or that there is a significant difference between prescription and description in the study of morality
naturalists
an attempt to bridge the is/ought gap. it is the bad inference from natural fact to a claim about moral goodness or moral rightness.
naturalistic fallacy
what are some examples of the naturalistic fallacy?
diseases are natural, therefore diseases are good.

animals kill the weakest among them during time of scarcity, therefore its okay to kill the weakest among us in time of scarcity
whats a major problem with the naturalistic approach
any existent phenomena can be considered "natural" in the sense that it is in accord with the laws of nature
the doctrine that holds that the rules of justice are grounded in a hypothetical contract among those within the political community
contractarianism
name 3 famous social contract theorists
thomas hobbes, john locke, and jean-jaques rousseau
hobbe's theory of justice though a contract theory is grounded in an argument from _____ _______.
psycological egoism
the theory that human beings are only ever motivated to do what is in their self interest
psycological egoism
____ argues that it is in man's rational self interest to submit to the rules of the contract to constrain his behavior and protect him from the behavior of everyone else
hobbes
hobbe's account of the "state of nature" is comparable to the famous "____ _____"
prisoner's dilemma
his contemporary ethical work takes a hobbesian foundation in psychological egoism to explain why we are all better off constraining ourselves to the rules of ethics
david gauthier
some have argued that the problems of "____ ____" are insurmountable.
some have argued that this is a ___ rather than a ____ of his theory
hobbe's foole,

virtue, flaw
the meta-ethical position of john rawls which takes as its foundation, an imaginary contract written in a specially conceived "original position"
contractualism
in contrast to hobbe's view, _______ is not grounded in psychological egoism
rawlsian contractualism
contractualists do not argue that a rule is just because it would be ______ for an agent to accept it given the actual circumstances. rather a contractualist will argue that a rule is just because it would be rational for an agent in the original position to accept it and this makes it _____ for an agent in the actual circumstances to respect the rule
rational, reasonable
rawl's project is often described as "___ ___" beacuse it abstracts the rules of justice from a constructed model of rational agency (the original position)
kantian constructivism
the contract situation in which rationally-self interested agents select the rules of a society from behind a " ___ __ ___"
original position, veil of ignorance
what are three objections to rawl's original position
his description of original positioners as a risk-averse, interest-blind, and very close in resemblence to a harvard philosophy professor