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45 Cards in this Set

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Difference between estrous and estrus
Estrous refers the cycle. Estrus refers to the period of time when the female is receptive.
What are the 3 types of estrous cycles?
Polyestrus, seasonal polyestrus, monoestrus
Which animals have polyestrus cycles?
Cows, queens, pigs, rodents
Which animals have seasonal polyestrus cycles (long day)?
Mares
Which animals have seasonal polyestrus cycles (short day)?
Ewes, does, elks, nannys
Which animals have monoestrus cycles?
Dogs, wolves, foxes, and bears
When is the breeding season of animals with long day seasonal polyestrus cycles?
Spring (April - June)
When is the breeding season of animals with short day seasonal polyestrus cycles?
Autumn (September - November)
When do animals with monoestrus cycles go into estrus?
March - May
The estrous cycle can be divided into 2 parts. What are they?
Follicular and luteal phases
Which phase is the short one and which is the long one?
Follicular phase is the short one and luteal phase is the long one.
What are the 4 stages that the estrous cycle can be divided up into?
Proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus
What occurs during proestrus?
Formation of ovulatory follicles and estradiol secretion
What occurs during estrus?
Sexual receptivity and peak E2 secretion
What occurs during metestrus?
CL formation and beginning of progesterone secretion
What occurs during diestrus?
Sustained luteal secretion of progesterone
What is the dominant ovarian structure during the follicular phase?
Follicle
What is the dominant hormone in the follicular phase?
Estrogen
What is the dominant ovarian structure in the luteal phase?
CL
What is the dominant hormone in the luteal phase?
Progesterone from CL
When does the follicular phase begin?
After luteolysis
What occurs in the follicular phase?
Decline in progesterone. FSH & LH are produced. They cause follicles to produce estrogen. It ends at ovulation.
When does the luteal phase begin?
After ovulation.
What happens in the luteal phase?
Development of CL that produces progesterone. Luteolysis is brought about by prostaglandin F2a
What 2 stages make up the follicular phase?
Proestrus and estrus
What 2 stages make up the luteal phase?
Metestrus and diestrus
Where is FSH and LH secreted from?
Anterior lobe of the pituitary
What causes negative feedback on FSH secretion?
Inhibin from the follicles
How does ovulation occur?
When estrogen reaches a threshold level, the preovulatory surge of LH occurs, inducing ovulation
Duration of estrus of:
1. bitch
2.cow
3. ewe
4. mare
5. queen
6. sow
Bitch 4-21 days. Cow 6-24 hours. Ewe 18-48 hours. Mare 2-12 days. Queen 2-19 days. Sow 12-96 hours.
What is anestrus?
A period of reproductive quiescence
What happens during proestrus in the bitch?
Begins with the appearance of blood-tinged vaginal discharge and by vaginal swelling.
When does proestrus end in the bitch?
It ends when the bitch accepts the male for mating.
Which stage of estrous cycle is the bitch missing?
Metestrus
Both pregnant and open bitches are considered to be in diestrus. True or false?
True
Does pregnancy alter the length of diestrus?
No
How often does a queen enter estrus?
Every 17 days
How long does estrus last in a queen?
9 days
What happens if copulation does not occur? (in a queen)
She enters a postestrus phase and comes into estrus a few days later
Why is a CL not formed if mating does not occur?
Because queens are induced ovulators so ovulation does not occur if mating does not occur
How long is the gestation period in queens?
60 days
What are some reasons for anestrus?
Pregancy, lactation, presence of offspring, season of year, stress, pathology
Which animal does not go through anestrus while lactating?
Queen
How does suckling influence cycling in the cow?
When suckling decreases, LH increase dramatically and the cow will begin to cycle
Is suckling totally responsible for LH increase?
No