Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/80

Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Physiology is most accurately described by this answer:
Study of the internal workings of living organs
The largest organ of the body is:
Skin
Appendages include:
Hair, nails, sweat and oil glands
Your skin contains what fraction of your body's primary immune cells?
One half
What does the skin protect against?
Outside elements and microorganisms
The barrier function of the skin includes:
The acid mantle
What is the average pH of the acid mantle?
4.5-5.5
What does TEWL stand for?
Transepidermal water loss
The intercellular cement between epidermal cells is made up of:
Lipids
The immune cells that protect us from infection are the:
T cells
Sensory nerve fibers are most abundant in the:
Fingertips
The average body's internal thermostat is set at _ degrees Fahrenheit
98.6
Which glands excrete perspiration and detoxify the body?
Sudoriferous
The sebaceous glands:
Soften the skin, secrete sebum, and protect the skin from outside elements
Absorption occurs through which part of the skin?
Cells, follicles, pores
It is important to understand the function of each layer of the skin because it helps you to:
Correctly choose products and treatments
Esthetician's are licensed to work on:
The epidermis only
About 95% of the epidermis is made up of:
Keratinocytes
Which answer most accurately describes the Stratum Lucidum?
A translucent layer that allows sunlight to pass through to the skin
What is the average cell turnover rate for the skin cells of the epidermis?
28 days
Desquamation is the:
shedding of skin cells in the outermost layers of the stratum corneum
Squamous cells are:
Flat cells
Which layer of the epidermis is located just below the stratum corneum?
Stratum lucidum
On which of these parts of the body is the skin the thickest?
Palm of the hand
Keratin and intercellular lipids are formed in the:
Stratum granulosum
Which layer of the skin produces melanin?
Stratum germinitivum
Mitosis occurs in which layer of the skin?
Stratum germinitivum
Which cells in the basal layer produce pigment granules?
Melanocytes
The thickest layer of the skin is called the:
Dermis
The two layers of the dermis are the:
Papillary and reticular
_______ aid in the production of collagen and elastin.
Fibroblasts
The junction of the dermis and the epidermis is called the ____ layer.
Papillary
Stretch marks are caused by:
Damaged elastin fibers
The primary cause of wrinkles is the damage and loss of:
Elastin
Subcutis or _______ tissue is found below the reticular layer.
Adipose
If you have folliculitis, you have:
An ingrown hair
Which fibers stimulate the arrector pili muscles?
Motor nerves
Differences to genetic skin color are due to:
Whether the person has more pheomelanin or eumelanin
Products that suppress melanin production by interrupting biochemical processes:
Tyrosinase inhibitors
Apocrine glands are most active:
During emotional changes
What do cells need in order to survive?
Nourishment, to proliferate, protection
Which of the following answers stimulate cell turnover?
Alpha hydroxy acids
Free radicals:
are super oxidizers, attack cell membranes, steal electrons from other atoms or molecules
Identify the greatest aging effect on the skin
UV rays
Which of these is an indication of free radical damage?
Red, inflammed skin
______ are called burning rays.
UVB rays
People with which natural hair color are particularly susceptible to sun damage?
Red
As estrogen depletes, skin begins to:
lose its tone
Estrogens used in hormone replacement therapy can come from:
plants or animals
Couperose veins can be caused by:
alimentary problems, harsh cosmetics, heat/cold fluctuations.
The branch of anatomy that deals with the nervous system and its disorders is known as:
Neurology
The nervous system is extremely important because it controls and coordinates the functions of ______
All other body systems
The system which is made up of the sensory and motor nerve fibers that extend from the brain and spinal cord and which are distributed to all parts of the body is called the ______ system
peripheral
The portion of the nervous system that functions without concious effotr and regulates the activities of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart is the _____ system
Central
The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems comprise two divisions of the ____ system
Autonomic/peripheral
The largest mass of nerve tissue in the body is the
Brain
The weight of the average brain is ______ oz.
44 to 48
The __________ is composed of masses of nerve cells with fibers running upward and downward; it originates in the brain and extends the length of the trunk.
Spinal cord
Another name for sensory nerves is:
afferent nerves
Another name for motor nerves is:
efferent nerves
nerves which contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to both send and recieve messages are called
mixed nerves
An autonomic stimulus
reflex
The fifth cranial, trigeminal or trifacial nerve is the chief sensory nerve of the face and muscles that control
chewing
fifth cranial is the _______ of the cranial nerves
largest
Chief motor nerve of the face emerges near the lower part of the ear is the
7th cranial nerve
Nerve of the neck and back that originiates in teh spinal cord is:
eleventh cranial
Another name for circulatory is
vascular
heart is enclosed in a membrane called
pericardium
_____ in heart allow blood to flow in one direction
valve
with each pump blood flows from the ______ to the ventricles and out
atria
thick walled muscular elastic tubes
arteries
thin walled, minute blood vessels receiev nourishment
capillaries
thin walled blood vessels that prevent back flow
veins
sticky salty fluid that circulates
blood
function of _________ is to carry oxygen
red corpuscles
function of _______is kill disease
white corpuscles
colorless watery fluid derived from plasma
lymph
main source of blood to the head, face and neck
common carotid
the _____ artery supplies the forehead
frontal
teh ____ artery supplies the crown and side of the head
parietal