Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/64

Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Activation Energy
Amount of energy that must be added to an atomic or molecular system to begin a reaction.
Allergen
Material that can cause an allergic reaction of the skin or respiratory system.
Awareness Level
Lowest level of training established by the National Fire Protection Association for first responders at hazardous materials incidents.
Bill of Lading
Shipping paper used by the trucking industry (and others) indicating origin, destination, route, and product; placed in the cab of every truck tractor. This document establishes the terms of a contract between shippers and transportation companies; serves as a document of title, contract of carriage, and receipt for goods.
Biological Toxin —
Poison produced by living organisms.
Boiling Point
Temperature of a substance when the vapor pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. At this temperature, the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation. At this point, more liquid is turning into gas than gas is turning back into a liquid.
Capacity Stencil
Number stenciled on the exterior of tank cars to indicated the volume of the tank.
Carcinogen
Cancer-producing substance.
Chemical Protective Clothing (CPC)
Clothing designed to shield or isolate individuals from the chemical, physical, and biological hazards that may be encountered during operations involving hazardous materials.
Chemical Warfare Agent
Chemical substance that is intended for use in warfare or terrorist activities to kill, seriously injure, or seriously incapacitate people through its physiological effects.
Choking Agent
Chemical warfare agent that attacks the lungs causing tissue damage.
Convulsant
Poison that causes an exposed individual to have convulsions.
Concentration
(1) Quantity of a chemical material inhaled for purposes of measuring toxicity.
Corrosive Material
Gaseous, liquid or solid material that can burn, irritate, or destroy human skin tissue and severely corrode steel.
Cryogenics
Gases that are converted into liquids by being cooled below -150°F (-101°C).
Dangerous Goods
Any product, substance, or organism included by its nature or by the regulation in any of the nine United Nations classifications of hazardous materials. Used to describe hazardous materials in Canada and used in the U.S. and Canada for hazardous materials aboard aircraft.
Dose
Quantity of a chemical material ingested or absorbed through skin contact for purposes of measuring toxicity.
Electron
Minute component of an atom that possesses a negative charge.
Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)
A manual that aids emergency response and inspection personnel in identifying hazardous materials placards. It also gives guidelines for initial actions to be taken at hazardous materials incidents. Formerly the North American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG).
Exothermic
Chemical reaction between two or more materials that changes the materials and produces heat, flames, and toxic smoke.
Frostbite
Local freezing and tissue damage due to prolonged exposure to extreme cold.
Hazardous Material
Any material that possesses an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of persons and/or the environment if it is not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacture, processing, packaging, use, disposal, or transportation.
Heat Cramps
Heat illness resulting from prolonged exposure to high temperatures; characterized by excessive sweating, muscle cramps in the abdomen and legs, faintness, dizziness, and exhaustion.
Heat Exhaustion
Heat illness caused by exposure to excessive heat; symptoms include weakness, cold and clammy skin, heavy perspiration, rapid and shallow breathing, weak pulse, dizziness, and sometimes unconsciousness.
Heat Rash
Condition that develops from continuous exposure to heat and humid air; aggravated by clothing that rubs the skin; reduces the individual’s tolerance to heat.
Heat Stroke
Heat illness caused by heat exposure, resulting in failure of the body’s heat regulating mechanism; symptoms include high fever of 105° to 106° F (40.5° C to 41.1° C); dry, red, hot skin; rapid, strong pulse; and deep breaths, convulsions. May result in coma or possibly death. Also called Sunstroke.
Hypothermia
Abnormally low or decreased body temperature.
Improvised Explosive Device (IED)
Device that is categorized by its container and the way it is initiated; usually homemade, constructed for a specific target, and contained in almost anything.
Initial Isolation Distance
Distance within which all persons are considered for evacuation in all directions from a hazardous materials incident.
Initial Isolation Zone
Circular zone (with a radius equivalent to the initial isolation distance) within which persons may be exposed to dangerous concentrations upwind of the source and may be exposed to life-threatening concentrations downwind of the source.
Initials and Numbers
Combination of letters and numbers stenciled on rail tank cars that may be used to get information about the car’s contents from the railroad’s computer or the shipper.
Ionizing Radiation
Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms resulting in a chemical change in the atom.
Irritant/Irritating Material
Liquid or solid that upon contact with fire or exposure to air emits dangerous or intensely irritating fumes.
Lethal Concentration
Concentration of an inhaled substance that results in the death of a certain percentage of the test population; the lower the value the more toxic the substance; an inhalation exposure expressed in parts per million (ppm), milligrams per liter (mg/liter), or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3).
Lethal Dose
Concentration of an ingested or injected substance that results in the death of a certain percentage of the test population; the lower the dose the more toxic the substance; an oral or dermal exposure expressed in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg).
Level A Protection
Highest level of skin, respiratory, and eye protection that can be afforded by personal protective equipment. Consists of positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, totally encapsulating chemical-protective suit, inner and outer gloves, and chemical-resistant boots.
Level B Protection
Personal protective equipment that affords the highest level of respiratory protection, but a lesser level of skin protection. Consists of positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, hooded chemical-resistant suit, inner and outer gloves, and chemical-resistant boots.
Level C Protection
Personal protective equipment that affords a lesser level of respiratory and skin protection than levels A or B. Consists of full-face or half-mask APR, hooded chemical-resistant suit, inner and outer gloves, and chemical-resistant boots.
Level D Protection
Personal protective equipment that affords the lowest level of respiratory and skin protection. Consists of coveralls, gloves, and chemical-resistant boots or shoes.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
Lower limit at which a flammable gas or vapor will ignite; below this limit the gas or vapor is too lean or thin to burn (too much oxygen and not enough gas).
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Form provided by the manufacturer and blender of chemicals that contains information about chemical composition, physical and chemical properties, health and safety hazards, emergency response procedures, and waste disposal procedures of a specified material.
Olfactory Fatigue
Gradual inability of a person to detect odors after initial exposure; may be extremely rapid in the case of some toxins such as hydrogen sulfide.
Operations Level
Level of training established by the National Fire Protection Association allowing first responders to take defensive actions at hazardous materials incidents.
Persistence
Length of time a chemical agent remains effective without dispersing.
Photon
Packet of electromagnetic energy.
Polar Solvent Fuel
Flammable liquids that have an attraction for water, much like a positive magnetic pole attracts a negative pole.
Protective Action Distance
Downwind distance from a hazardous materials incident within which protective actions should be implemented.
Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)
Device that spreads radioactive contamination over the widest possible area by detonating conventional high explosives wrapped with radioactive material.
Reactivity
Ability of two or more chemicals to react and release energy and the ease with which this reaction takes place.
Shelter in Place
Having occupants remain in a structure or vehicle in order to provide protection from a rapidly approaching hazard.
Sorbent
Granular, porous filtering material used in vapor- or gas-removing respirators.
Specific Gravity
Weight of a substance compared to the weight of an equal volume of water at a given temperature. Specific gravity less than 1 indicates a substances lighter than water; specific gravity greater than 1 indicates a substance heavier than water.
Specification Marking
Stencil on the exterior of tank cars indicating the standards to which the tank car was built.
Strong Oxidizer
Material that encourages a strong reaction (by readily accepting electrons) from a reducing agent (fuel).
Systemic Effect
Something that affects an entire system rather than a single location or entity.
Threshold Limit Value (TLV®)
Concentration of a given material in parts per million (ppm) that may be tolerated for an 8-hour exposure during a regular workweek without ill effects.
Threshold Limit Value/Ceiling (TLV®/C)
Maximum concentration of a given material in parts per million (ppm) that should not be exceeded, even instantaneously.
Threshold Limit Value/Short-Term Exposure Limit (TLV®/STEL)
Fifteen-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded at any time nor repeated more than four times daily with a 60-minute rest period required between each STEL exposure. These short-term exposures can be tolerated without suffering from irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or narcosis of a sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, impair self-rescue, or materially reduce worker efficiency. TLV/STELs are expressed in parts per million (ppm) and milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3).
Toxic Industrial Material (TIM)/Toxic Industrial Chemical (TIC)
Industrial chemical that is toxic at certain concentration and is produced in quantities exceeding 30 tons per year at any one production facility; readily available and could be used by terrorists to deliberately kill, injury, or incapacitate people.
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL)
Upper limit at which a flammable gas or vapor will ignite. Above this limit, the gas or vapor is too rich to burn (lacks the proper quantity of oxygen).
Vapor Density
Weight of a given volume of pure vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Vapor density less than 1 indicates a vapor lighter than air; vapor density greater than 1 indicates a vapor heavier than air.
Vapor Pressure
Measure of the tendency of a substance to evaporate; pressure at which a vapor is in equilibrium with its liquid phase for a given temperature.
Water Solubility
Ability of a liquid or solid to mix with or dissolve in water.
Waybill
Shipping paper used by a railroad to indicate origin, destination, route, and product. Each car has a waybill that the conductor carries.