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68 Cards in this Set

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anemia
An abnormally low amount of hemoglobin or low count of red blood cells that causes a person to feel constantly tired or run down
disease
autoimmune disease
An immunological disorder in which the immune system turns against it self
cytotoxic T cell
A type of lymphocyte thst kills infected cells and cancer cells
closed circulatory system
circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept seperate from interstitial fluid
venule
a vessel the conveys blood between a capilary bed and a bed
systole
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle contracts and the chambers pump the blood
SA (sinoatrole) node
The pacemaker of the heart, located in the wall of the right atrium. At the base of the wall seperating the two atria is another patch of nodal tissue called the atrioventricular node (AV).
right atrium
artherosclerosis
The most common form of arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. Build up of fatty deposits within the walls of arteries restricts the flow of blood to vital organs
bronchus
one air of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs
diastole
the stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
immunodeficieny disease
Any deficiency in the ability to produce an effective immune response
diaphragm
(1)a sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the thoraic cavity in mammals; active in ventilating the lungs. (2)A dome-shaped rubber cup fitted into the upper portion of the vagina before sexual intercourse. It serves as a physical barrier to block the passage of sperm
lymphatic system
Asystem of vessels and lymph cells, seperate from the circulatory system, that returns fluid and protein to the blood
atrium
a chamber that receives blood returning to the vertebrate heart.
tracheae
tiny air tubes that branch throughout the insect body for gas exchange
secondary immune response
The immune response elicited when an animal encounters the same antigen at some later time. The secondary immune response is more rapid, of greater magnitude, and of longer duration than the primary immune response
allergens
antigens that cause allergies
systemic circuit
The branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body organs and then returns oxygen- poor blood to the right atrium via the veins.
pulse
the rhythmic stretching of the arteries caused by the pressure of blood forced through the arteries by contractions of the ventricles during systole
vein
a vessel that returns blood to the heart
white blood cell
a blood cell that functions in defending the body against against infections and cancer cells. Also called leukocyte.
effector cell
a muscle cell or gland cell that performs the body's responses to stimuli; responds to signals from the brain or other processing center nervous system
larnyx
The voicebox,containing the vocal cords
inflammatory response
a line of defense triggered by the penetration of the skin or mucous membrane, in which small blood vessels in the vicinity of an injury dilate weaker and become leakier, enhancing of the infiltration of leukocytes; may also be widespread in the body
neutrophil
The most abundant type leukocyte. Neutrophils tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to but a few days.
complement proteins
a set of about 20 serum proteins that carry out a cascade of steps leading to lysis of microbes.
passive immunity
Temporary immunity obtained by acquiring ready made antibodies or immune cells; lasts only a few weeks or months because the immune system has not been stimulated by antigens
alveolus
(1) One of the deadend, multilobed air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs (2)One the milk-secreting sacsof epithelial tissue in mammary glands.
fibrinogen
The inactive form of the plasma protein that is converted to the active form fibrin, which aggregates into threads that form the framework of a blood clot.
antigen
a foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and that elicits an immune response
double circulation
A circulation scheme with seperate pulmonary and systemic circuits, which ensures vigorous blood flow to all organs
cardiovascular system
A closed circulatory system with a heart and branching network of arteries, veins and capillaries; the system is a characteristic of vertebrate.
arteriole
A vessel that contains blood between an artery and capillary bed
circulatory system
consist of heart, which pumps blood and blood vessels that transport it
T cells
T lymphocytes that are used as a defense mechanism of our immune system.
double circulation
A circulation scheme with seperate pulmonary and systemic circuits, which ensures vigorous blood flow to all organs
clonal selection
The mechanism that determines specificity and accounts for antigen memory in the immune system; occurs because an antigen introduced to the body selectively activates only a tiny fraction of inactive lymphocytes, which proliferate to form a clone of effector cells specific for stimulating antigen
emphysema
A potentially deadly disease caused by cigarette smoking that makes the thin walled aveoli brittle
T cells
T lymphocytes that are used as a defense mechanism of our immune system.
anaphylactic shock
An acute, life-threatening, allergis response
pyrogens
Molecules that set the body's thermostat to a higher tempature. They are released by certain leukocytes
humoral immunity
The type of immunity that fights bacteria and viruses in the body fluids with antibodies that circulate in the blood plasma and lymph, fluids formerly called humors
lymph nodes
Organs located along lymph vessels. They filter lymph and help attack viruses and bacteria.
blood pressure
The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel.
heart attack
When one or more blood vessels are blocked, heart muscle cells will quickly die and the heart will fail to function properly
leukemia
A type of cancer of the blood forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells and an abnormally high number of them in the blood; cancer of the bone marrow cells that produce leukocytes
hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen
interferon
A chemical messenger of the immune system; produced by virus-infected cells and capable of helping other cells resist the virus
ventricle
(1) A chamber that pumps blood out of the heart. (2) A space in the vertebrate brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
White blood cell
A blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells.
Leukocyte
hypertension
High blood pressure that is marked by persistent systolic blood pressure higher than 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mm Hg.
platelet
A small enucleated blood cell important clotting; derived from large cells in the bone marrow
T cells
T lymphocytes that are used as a defense mechanism of our immune system.
macrophange
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis
complement proteins
A set of about 20 serum proteins that carry out a cascade of steps leading to the lysis of microbes
inflammatory response
A line of defense triggered byt penetration of the skin or mucous membranes, in which small blood vessels in the vicinity of an injury dilate and become leaker; may also be widespread in the body
erythrocyte
A red blood cell; contains hemoglobin, which functions in transporting oxygen in the circulatory system
leukemia
A type of cancer of the blood forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells and an abnormally high number of them in the blood; cancer of the bone marrow cells that produce leukocytes
pulmonary circuit
The branch of circulatory system that supplies the lungs
secondary immune response
The immune response elicited when animal encounter the same antigen at some later time. This is more rapid, of greater magnitude, and of longer duration than the primary immune system
active immunity
immunity conferred by recovering from an infectious disease
pacemaker
A specialized region of the right atrium of the mammalian heart that sets the rate of contraction; also called the sinoatrial (SA) node
electrocardiogram
A record of the electrical impulses that travel through cardiac muscle during the heart cycle
passive immunity
Temporary immunity obtained by acquiring ready made antibodies or immune cells; last only a few weeks or months because the immune system has not been stimulated by antigens
macrophange
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis
bronchioles
Five branches of the bronchus that transport air to alveoli
natural killer (NK) cell
A nonspecific defensive cell that attacks tumor cells and detroys infected body cells, especially those harboring viruses
monoclonal antibody
A defensive protein produced by cells descended from a single cell; antibody that is secreted by a clone of cells and, consequently, is specific for a single antigenic determinant