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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
List the functions of the skeletal system: (5)
1. Support
2. Protection
3. Movement
4. Storage
5. Blood cell production
What makes up the matrix of connective tissue?
Collagen, proteoglycan, and organic molecules, as well as water and minerals.
p 115
Tough ropelike proteins.
p 115
Large molecules consisting of polysaccarides attached to core proteins which attract and retain large amounts of water between their polysaccharides.
p 115
What makes up the extracellular matrix of tendons and ligaments?
Large amounts of collagen fibers, making the structure very tough, likes ropes or cables.
p 116
What makes up the extracellular matrix of cartilage?
Collagen and proteoglycans. Collagen makes cartilage tough, where the water-filled proteoglycans make it smooth and resilient.

As a result it is relatively rigid, but springs back to its original shape if it is bent or slightly compressed. An excellent shock absorber.
p 116
central shaft of a long bone
p 116
two ends of a long bone
p 116
medullary cavity
Cavity of the bone in the area of the diaphysis, filled with either yellow or red marrow.
p 116
(including red and yellow)
The soft tissue in the medullary cavities of the bone.
Yellow is mostly fat.
Red is where blood-forming cells and is the only site of blood formation in adults.
p 116
What covers most of the dense connective tissue?
Periosteum and endosteum
p 116
Blood forming cells, as well as formating blood, they also repair and remodel the bone.
p 116
When do osteoblast become osteocytes?
When osteoblast become surrounded by the matrix.
p 116
What is the structure of compact bone?
Consist of osteon, individual canal of blood vessels that run parallel to the long axis of the bone contained within the central canals, with osteocytes and the lamellae surrounding it.
p 116 & 118
What is the structure of cancellous bone?
Consist of trabeculea and no cetral canals. Trabeculea are delicate interconnecting rods or plates of bone.
p 119
Bone Ossification
The formation of bone by osteoblasts, either intramembranous or endochondral.
Intramembranous ossification is when osteobasts begin to produce bone in connective tissue membranes.
Endochondral ossification occurs within cartilage.
and p 119
Bone growth
Occurs by the deposition of new bone lamellae onto existing bone or other connective tissue, called appositional growth.
p 121
bone growth in length occurs in...
epiphyseal plate
p 121
bone remodeling
Involves the removal of existing bone by osteoclasts and the deposition of new bone by osteoblasts.
p 122
Bone repair
When bone is broken a clot forms. The zone of tissue repair between the two bone fragments is called a callus. After two to three days it becomes invaded with blood vessels. Osteoblast enter the callus and begin forming cancellous which is usually complete after 4-6 weeks. Total healing may take several months.
p 122-123
Explain the role of bone in calcium homeostasis
Calcium homeostasis in blood is very important as it is critical for for normal muscle and nervous system function. Calcium moves into the bone as osteoblast build new bone and out of bone as osteoclast break down bone. When osteoblast and osteoclast activity is balance, the movement of calcium into and out of bone is equal.
p 123
Parts of bone:
body, shaft
main portion
Parts of bone:
Enlarged often rounded end
Parts of bone:
Constricted area between head and body
Parts of bone:
smooth, rounded articular surface
Parts of bone:
small, flattened articular surface
Parts of bone:
prominent ridge
Parts of bone:
prominent projection
Parts of bone:
Tubercle or tuberosity
Knob or enlargement
Parts of bone:
Large tuberosity found only on the proximal femur
Parts of bone:
Parts of bone:
canal, meatus
Parts of bone:
Parts of bone:
Parts of bone: