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51 Cards in this Set

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The scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the body.
page 2
Systemic anatomy
The study of the body by systems. Examples are circulatory, nervous, skeletal, and muscular system.
page 2
Regional anatomy
The study of the organization of the body by areas. Examples are head, abdomen, arm, etc.
page 2
Surface anatomy
The study of external features, such as bony projections, which serve as landmarks for locating deeper structures.
page 2
Anatomic imaging
The use of x-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures.
page 2
The scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things.
page 2
Human physiology
The study of a specific organism, the human.
page 2
Cellular/systemic physiology
Physiology that emphasize specific organizational levels.
page 2
What are the six structural levels of the body?
-organ system
page 3
Chemical (structural level)
Interactions among atoms and their combinations into molecules. aka chemical makeup
page 3
The basic living unit of all plants and animals which is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.
page 3 and glossary and internet (
Molecules can combine to form...
organelles, which are the small structures that make up cells.
page 3
A group of similar cells and the material surrounding them.
page 4
List the four primary tissue types:
page 4
Composed of two or more tissue types that together perform one or more common functions.
page 4
Organ System
A group organs classified as a unit because of a common function or set of functions.
page 4
Integumentary System
Consist of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands.
Provides protection, regulates temperature, prevent water loss, and produces vitamin D precursors.
page 5
Skeletal System
Consist of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joint.
Provides protection and support, allows body movement, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat.
page 5
Muscular System
Consist muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.
Produces body movement, maintains posture, and produces body heat.
page 5
Lymphatic System
Consist of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs.
Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fat from the digestive tract.
page 5
Respiratory System
Consist of the lungs and respiratory passages.
Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH.
page 5
Digestive System
Consist of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs.
Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes.
page 5
Nervous system
Consist of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functions.
page 6
Endocrine System
Consist of glands, such as the pituitary, that secret hormones.
A major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions.
page 6
Cardiovascular system
Consist of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body;plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature.
page 6
Urinary System
Consist of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine.
Removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance.
page 6
Female Reproductive System
Consist of the ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures.
Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors.
page 6
Male Reproductive System
Consist of the testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis.
Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors.
page 6
Any living thing considered as a whole, whether composed of one cell, such as bacterium, or trillions of cells, such as a human.
page 5
List the essential characteristics of life:
page 7
Characteristics of life:
The condition in which the parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other an the parts interact to perform specific functions.
page 7
Characteristics of life:
The ability to use energy to perform vital functions, such as growth, movement, and reproduction.
page 7
Characteristics of life:
The ability of an organism to sense changes in the environment and make the adjustments that help maintain its life. For example, if the body temperature increases in an hot environment, sweat glands produce sweat, which can lower body temperature back toward normal levels.
page 7
Characteristics of life:
An increase in size of all or part of the organism. It can result from an increase in cell number, size, or the amount of substance surrounding cells.
page 7
Characteristics of life:
The changes an organism undergoes through time; it begins with fertilization and ends at death.
page 7
Characteristics of life:
The formation of new cells or new organisms.
page 7
The existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body. Examples or the bodies reaction to temperature change, such as sweating or shivering, to maintain a normal set point. Includes temperature, volume, and chemical content.
page 7
set point
Ideal normal value.
page 7
normal range
Slight increases and decrease in the set point.
page 7
Negative-feedback mechanisms
To maintain homeostasis which does not prevent variation in homeostasis but maintains or returns to homeostasis by reacting according to deviations from the set point.
page 8 and glossary
List and Define the three components of negative-feedback mechanisms:
Receptor-monitors the value of a variable such as B/P.

Control center-establishes a set point point around which the variable is maintained, such as a part of the brain.

Effector-change the value of the variable, such as the heart. Since the B/P in part depends on the heart beating, increase heart rate, increase B/P, lower heart rate, lower B/P.
page 8
Positive-feedback mechanisms
Are not homeostatic, and rare in heathy individuals. When diviation from the set point (normal ideal value) is made the response of the system is to make the deviation even greater which can cause negative effects even death.
page 9 and glossary
Anatomic position
A person standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
page 10
Define directional terms:
page 10
Define directional terms:
-medial-toward the midline
-lateral-away from the midline
-superficial-structure close to the surface of the body
-deep-surface close to interior of the body
page 11
Define these planes:
-sagital plane
-medial plane
-transverse/horizontal plan
-frontal/coronal plane
-sagital plane-runs vertically through the body and separates it into right and leftpars.
-medial plane-a saggittal plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides it to equal halves.
-transverse/horizontal plan-runs parallel to the surface of the ground and divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
-frontal/coronal plane-runs vertically from right to left and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
page 13
Define these planes:
-longitudinal section
-transverse/cross section
-oblique section
-longitudinal section-a cut through the long axis of the organ.
-transverse/cross section-a cut at a right angle to the long axis.
-oblique section-If a cut is made across the long axis at other than a right angle.
page 13
Define these body cavities:
-thoracic cavity
-abdominal cavity
-pelvic cavity
-abdominopelvic cavity
-thoracic cavity-surrounded by the rib cage and is separated from the abdominal cavity by the muscular diaphragm. Divided into left and right halves by a median structure called the mediastinum.
-abdominal cavity-is bounded primarily by the abd muscles and contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.
-pelvic cavity-a small space enclosed by the bones of the pelvis and contains urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and the internal reproductive organs.
-abdominopelvic cavity-another name for the abd and pelvic cavities together, since they are not physically separated.
page 13
Serous membranes
Thin lining on the cavities that do not open to the outside of the body, consist of epithelium and connective tissue, does not contain glands but does secrete serous fluid. Has an inner and outter linning;visceral (inner) and parietal (outer) lining.
page 13 and glossary
-Pericardial cavity
-plural cavity
-peritoneal cavity
-Pericardial cavity-surrounds the heart
-plural cavity-surrounds the lungs
-peritoneal cavity-surrounds many of the organs in the abdomiopelvic cavity
List the 11 systems of the human body
1. Reproductive
2. Respiratory
3. Lymphatic
4. Endocrine
5. Digestive
6. Nervous
7. Urinary
8. Integumentary
9. Cardiovascular
10 Skeletal
11. Muscular