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46 Cards in this Set

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Who is Alfred Wenger?
A German meteorologist who was an Arctic explorer. He found tropical fossils on Greenland.
Pangaea
How the Earth was before continental drift
Gondwanaland
The southern part of Pangaea where similar plant fossils were found
Laurasia
Northern part of Pangaea
Evidence for Continental Drift
-Match of continental outlines
-Continuity of mountain belts and other geological formations across continental boundaries
-Similar fossils on separate continents
-Glacial deposits and otoher paleoclimate indicators
Continental Shape
Shoreline similarity using the continental shelf
Continuity of mountain belts
Similar geology and ages of the Appalacian and Caedonides; Cape Fold and folded rocks in Buenos Aires;
Fossil similarity
Upper paleozoic fern Glossopteris in Africa, S. America, India, Austrailia, and Antarctica
-Large seeds
Mesosaurus-fresh water dino and land-dwelling dinos
Glacial Deposits and Paleoclimate
Glacial deposits found in arid climates and similar aged and types occur in all southern continents
Why was Wegeners idea rejected?
-Continent fit wasn't perfect
-Rock unit correlation was weak
-Tillites were't glacial deposits
-Northern hemisphere coals weren't tropical
-Errors in the calculated motion of Greenland
-He wasn't a geologist
-No Mechanism for moving continents
Crust
Thin
oceanic and continental
Lithosphere
crust and cool uppermost part of the mantle
Mantle
thick
includes asthenosphere which is asphalt-like
Inner Core
Solid-Iron, Nickel alloy
Outer Core
Magnetic-Iron and Nickel alloy
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
Paleomanetism
Magnetic Reversals
Earthquake and Volcano Distribution
Lithospheric Plates
Plate Boundaries
Paleomagnetism
Magnetite in the basalts of Greenland were not pointing to the present day poles
Magnetic Reversal
-New ocean floor basalts become magnetized according to the existing magnetic field
-Parallel to the mid-ocean ridge
-Both sides equal in size and polarity
-Started seafloor spreading
Earthquake and Volcano Patterns
earthquakes occur near trenches, as well as volcanoes
Lithospheric Plates
They are in motion and constantly changing
7 major plates-Pacific
Different Types of Plate Boundaries
Divergent-moving apart
Convergent-coming together, o-o, o-c, c-c
Transform-sliping past one another
Oceanic Oceanic
Midocean ridge or trench
Oceanic Continetal
Trench Volcano
Whats formed at Divergent boundaries?
Volcanoes Rift Valley
Transform
Transform Fault-San Andreas
Convection
Molecules vibrate faster because they are being heated. They rise up because they become less dense. They then get cooler, move slower, and sink.
Volcano
A weak spot in the Earth's crust where magma comes to the surface
Magma
molten rock forming substances, gases, and water vapor
Where are volcanoes found?
Plate boundaries
Ring of Fire in the Pacific ocean
Parts of a volcano
crater
Lava
Magma
Pipe
Vent
How does magma rise?
It comes from the asthenosphere under great pressure. It's less dense than the surrounding material, so it rises and gets trapped under rock or reaches the surface. Gases in magma rush out, carrying the magma with it.
What does eruption depend on?
gas in magma
viscosity of magma
temperature of magma
silica content of magma
3 stages of volcano
Active
Dormant
Extinct
Types of volcanoes?
shield
cinder cone
composite
Shield Volcano
wide, gently sloping mountain
Olympus Mons, Mars
Cinder Cone Volcano
ash, cinders, and bombs pile around a vent in a sttep hill
Little Lake, CA
Composite Volcanoes
tall cone shaped where lava alternates ash, cinders, and bombs.
Mt. Fuji, Japan
Earthquake
A vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy from the focus
What are earthquakes associated with?
Faults; stress
Body Waves
Primary and Secondary
Primary Waves
Push-pull
Longitudinal
Secondary Waves
Moves through solids
Transverse waves-travel like an "S"
Surface Wave
Like ocean swells-up and down or side to side motion
LOTS OF DAMAGE
Quantity of Energy released from an Earthquake
Magnitude
How can you measure the size of an EQuake?
Richter Scale
Moment Magnitude
what is a tsunami?
displacement in ocean floor causing a "wave" which increases in size before reaching the shore