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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Scientific Method
Process not recipe
Hypothesis
testable prediction
if, then statement
Theory
well tested, widely accepted view the scientific community agrees explains observable facts
Law
Only describes a particular behavior in nature, narrow in scope and can be briefly described
Conclusion
1) Refers to purpose & hypothesis
2) Discuss data
3) Results that prove/disprove hypothesis
4) Point out errors/improvements
Earth System
1) Geosphere
2) Hydrosphere
3) Atmosphere
4) Biosphere
Energy
Open System
Closed System
Matter & Life
Independent Variable
Responding variable that does not depend on the other factor
Dependent Variable
Manipulated variable that depends on the other factor
Rotation vs Revolution
Rotation: turning/spinning on axis
Revolution: motion of body along a path around a point in space
Satellite
Object which orbits around a planet.
1) Natural: Moon
2) Artificial: launched into space
Low orbits & geosynchronous orbits
Low: allow several orbits each day (ex: weather satellite)
Geo: orbit w/ earth's rotation (ex: communication satellite)
Moon
No light
Orbit = 28 days
Phases of Moon
Reflection of light from Sun off surface of Moon.
Same face
One side of moon because rotation=revolutions
Lunar Eclipse
Moon behind Earth, no light reflected from sun
Solar Eclipse
Moon between Sun & Earth
Moon Facts
1/6 gravity
No ATM
No erosion
Origin: lg object strikes earth and ejects material caught by gravity and becomes spherical.
Sun
1) Interior: Nuclear fusion H->He
2) Photosphere: part we see
3) Chromosphere: thin red layer of hot gases
4) Corona: outer fringe; makes solar wind
Sunspots
11 yr cycle
Solar flares
brief outburst cause solar wind to intensify
Prominence
cloudlike structures consisting of gases held by magnetic fields
Minerals
Naturally occuring inorganic solid with definit chemical composition and orderly crystaline structure
Identifying minerals
1) Quantitative
2) Qualitative
Properties
1) Crystal form
2) Color
3) Streak
4) Hardness
5) Cleavage
6) Fracture
7) Specific gravity
Silicates
Quartz
Mica
Feldspar
Olivine
Nonsilicates
Carbonates
Sulfides
Halides
Oxides
Native Elements
Mineral uses
Chalk
Tums
Salt
Cement
Battery Acid
Rocks
Made up of 1+ minerals
Uses: Floor tiles, landscaping, cememnt, steel, etc
Igneous
1) Cool quickly/slowly
2) Classified: texture/composition
3) Bowen's reaction series:according to T @ crystalization
4) Main types: Granite, Basalt, Obsidian, & Pumice
Sedimentary
1) From weathered material
2) Detrial/clastic/chemical
3) Deposition-Compaction
-Cementation-Lithification
*limestone fizzes b/c calcite fizzes
Metamorphic
1) Agents: heat, pressure, & fluids (h2o)
2) Transformed from parents
3) Foliated: Aligning of minerals
4) Nonfoliated: no layers
Weathering
Physical breakdown & Chemical alteration of rocks
1) Chemical: rusting/oxidation
2) Mechanical: frost wedging/unloading
Erosion
Physical removal of material by mobile agents (ex: wind, rain, waves)
Soil
combination of mineral & organic matter, water & air
Humus
organic matter in soil produced by decomp of plants & animals; High ability to retain water
Loam
no dominating soil texture; best suited for plant-life
Formation of Soil
1) parent material
2) time
3) climate
4) plants
5) animals
6) slope
Soil profile
vertical section through soil
Soil structure/texture
Important: ability to be cultivated & susceptibility to erode
Mass wasting
work of gravity on earth
Types of mass wasting
1)Landslides
2)Creep
3)Slump
Landslides
1)fall - slope too steep
2)slides - along curved surface
3)flow - saturated with water