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25 Cards in this Set

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Q: What is crucial to the protection of juvenile fish?
A: Kelp forests
Q: What animal in the order Carnivora indirectly helps control the health of kelp forests?
A: Sea otters by eating sea urchins that eat kelp
Q: If you were to remove otters, then…
A: Sea urchins would grow w/o control & kelp forests would die off. In CA waters, otters & kelp are trying to make a come-back
Q: What should you never do to a sea anemone?
H: Your finger skin is thick enough can resist the neurotoxin, but…
Q: Individual coral are called?
A: Polyps; small & feeds with stinging tentacles
Q: Why do warming episodes like those experienced during severe El Ninos tend to stress corals?
A: They cannot survive in water that is too warm (>30 deg C).
H: Trade winds reverse direction…
Q: What happens when coral perform coral bleaching?
A: Loss of color in response to the removal/expulsion of coral’s symbiotic partner (zooxanthellae algae) that normally feeds it. The coral will be weakened and not grow & over time, it will lead to colony death.
Q: What is a special feature of Cnidarians?
A: Regular consumers that also live symbiotically with primary producers
H: Mixotrophic
Q: Are warm surface waters nutrient-poor with not much phytoplankton?
A: Yes
Q: What are 5 features about zooxanthellae?
A: Modified dinoflagellates
- Live in outer tissue of coral polyps
- Mutualism with hermatypic coral polyps
- Require clear sunlit waters & are stenothermal organisms (>= 20 deg C)
- Highly susceptible to pollution as a result (cloudy sediment, fertilizer runoff, sewage)
Q: Explain the benefits to the symbiotic relationship of zooxanthellae & coral polyps.
A: Zooxanthellae get a stable environment, predator protection & supply of nutrients (coral waste products)

The coral gets a local oxygen supply, secondary food source (if hard times set in) & a waste removal system. This is also the only way coral reefs can survive in the nutrient-poor tropical waters, but get highest Carbon rates in the world!
Q: How do coral reefs get as big as they are?
A: When coral dies, it’s calcite remains form a limestone structure for new coral to latch & grow upon
Q: What is the geology sequence of coral reefs?
A: Begins as a fringing reef surrouding a new island
- As island/volcanic-peak sinks, the coral continues to grow vertically at an isostatic rate. This forms a lagoon with sediment coming up as the island subsides. (Barrier reef)
- Eventually erodes into seamount, with lagoon more prominent and coral reef still growing as an Atoll.
Q: What are 4 reasons for coral reef decline?
A: 1 – Increasing global temperature
2 – Habitat disturbance through tourism, fishing
3 – Pollution
4 – Increased exposure to UVs
Q: What are the “oases of the deep ocean”?
A: Hydrothermal vent biocommunities
Q: What is the source of primary production in hydrothermal vent communities?
A: Chemosynthesis near black smokers (belch black cloud of hot water full of metal particles)
H: Some form of synthesis…
Q: What is the chemical equation for chemosynthesis?
A: Hydrogen Sulfide + Water + CarbonDioxide + Oxygen -> Glucose + Sulfuric acid
H: Many organisms depend symbiotically on archaea for a specific carbohydrate produced in this equation
Q: What is the source of primary production for hypersaline, hydrocarbon, and subduction zone seeps?
A: Chemosynthesis
H: All located in hydrogen sulfide-rich waters
Q: Where may have been some of the first regions where life was established on Earth?
A: Hydrothermal vents
Q: Where is the deep biosphere?
A: Beneath the ocean floor where microbes that oxidize methane to produce food for other organisms have been found
Q: What is the average growth rate of human yearly?
A: +80 million every year
Q: What is commercial extinction?
A: Depletion of a species to the point that it is no longer profitable to harvest
Q: What are 3 solutions increasing fish stocks?
A: 1 – Improved Fisheries Management
2 – Aquaculture (Human cultivation of marine organisms under controlled conditions)
3 – Mariculture (Farming of marine organisms in estuaries or shallow bays
Q: What is the standard for Pacifc NW Salmon Mariculture?
A: Now farmed in wave-protected coves (equivalent of poultry pens); still requires ocean extraction for feed; unfortunately genetic uniformity of fish fosters disease
Q: What is the difference between microclimate, mesoclimate, and macroclimate?
A: Micro – Cool shade under a tree (local atmospheric zone)
Meso – Conditions in a region a few square km in size (i.e. Entire LA Basin)
Macro – Climate of an area size of country, continent, or ocean
H: Climate, in general, is accumulation of weather events over a long period of time; these subsets are divided w/ regards to area of event