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37 Cards in this Set

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Q: What are the 3 Domains of Life?
A: Bacteria (simple single celled organisms that lack nuclei), Archaea (Similar to Bacteria; live in extreme environments, temperatures, pressures; differ in RNA sequences), Eukarya (Have a nucleus)
Q: What are the 5 kingdoms of organisms?
A: Monera (simple organisms), Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protoctista (protozoa)
Q: What are the classification schemes for marine organisms?
A: Taxonomy (Genetic classification), Mode of Nutrition, Habitat, Mobility
Genetics, How you eat, where you live, how you move
Q: What is the order of taxonomic classification (most inclusive -> less inclusive)?
A: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Q: Marine organisms are classified as what 3 things based on habitat and mobility?
A: Plankton, Nekton, Benthos
H: Drifters, Swimmers, Bottom Dwellers
Q: An individual organism of plankton is a:
A: Plankter
Q: The vast majority of the Earth’s biomass is (with respect to origins)?
A: Planktonic (A drifting lifestyle)
H: biomass = mass of living organisms
Q: Viral plankton are known as?
A: Virioplankton; Smaller than bacterioplankton
Q: 2 names of classification for plankton in terms of size?
A: Macroplankton, Picoplankton (2x10^-7m to 2x10^-6m)
Q: What 4 factors can limit the lateral range of nekton?
A: Changes in temperature, salinity, viscosity (internal resistance to flow), availability of nutrients
H: Basically physical conditions and biological interaction
Q: What are 3 subdivisions of benthos?
A: Epifauna (live on surface of sea floor), Infauna (live buried in sand, shells, mud), Nektobenthos (live by swimming/crawling through water at the bottom but above the sea floor)
H: On the floor, in the floor, right above the floor
Q: More than 98% of marine organisms are:
A: Benthic; Other 2% live in pelagic zone
Q: Of the 1,750,000 known species on Earth, what percentage is on land & what in ocean?
A: 86 %-> land, 14 %-> water
Q: Water constitutes more than 80% of the mass of protoplasm that is?
A: The substance of living matter
Q: Smallest of plankton are caught artificially to study with special filters called?
A: Centrifuges
Q: Describe the relationship between viscosity of ocean water and salinity & temperature
A: Viscosity goes UP, salinity goes UP, and temperature goes DOWN
Q: As organisms increase in size, viscosity becomes…
A: an obstacle to survival; the faster they (big organisms) swim, the more the viscosity of water impedes them (Not only is water displaced in front of them, but water must displace the area that is vacated)
H: Resistance to flow…
Q: What is streamlining?
A: Having a body shape that offers the least resistance to fluid flow. Streamlined shape is usually with a flattened body with a small cross section at front end & gradual tapering at back end to reduce left-behind wake
H: Has to do with dealing with viscosity; dolphins and whales are good at this
Q: Which water has a high viscosity and why, cold water or hot water?
A: Cold water goes because it is inversely proportional to temperature
Q: What is a stenothermal organism?
A: An organism that can withstand only very small temperature changes; found in areas of Open Ocean at depths where large temperature changes do not occur
H: steno- = narrow
Q: What is a eurythermal organism?
A: An organism that can withstand large/rapid change in temperature; found in shallow coastal waters and in surface waters of the Open Ocean.
H: Eury- = wide
Q: Organisms living in warm water tend to have what 4 features?
A: They’re individually smaller (decrease volume), have ornate plumage (increase SA), comprise a greater number of species and have a much smaller total biomass than organisms living in cold water
- Nutrient poor waters but more range for different types of evolutions
Q: What is a euryhaline organism?
A: An organism that can withstand large/rapid change in salinity; found in estuaries that normally have high amounts of salinity but during floods, has extremely low levels
Q: What is a stenohaline organism?
A: An organism that can withstand only very small salinity changes; found in the Open Ocean that is hardly ever exposed to large changes in salinity.
Q: What is the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration?
A: Diffusion; occurs with nutrients in seawater through organism’s cell walls; also occurs with organism’s waste
Q: What is the passing of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher concentration (of salinity) to a region of lower concentration (of salinity)?
A: Osmosis; explains relationship between organisms, water intake, and living in different salinities
Q: Explain isotonic, hypertonic & hypotonic for organisms.
A: - Equal osmotic pressure & no net transfer of water through the membrane in either direction = isotonic organism
- Lower salinity outside the cells than inside the organism, so water will pass through the organism’s membrane INTO the organism = hypertonic organism
- Higher salinity outside the cells than inside the organism, so water will pass through the organism’s membrane OUT OF the organism = hypotonic organism
H: hyper – over (saline), hypo – under (saline)
Q: Why can marine fish live in seawater that they are always hypotonic within?
A: They drink ocean water and excrete the salt specially; also let out very small amt of urine
Therefore, salt is always trying to enter their bodies and they could dehydrate quickly.
Q: Why can freshwater fish live in dilute water that they are always hypertonic within?
A: Do not drink water; specially absorb the salts, let out large amt of urine
Too much salt already; need no more.
Q: How can organisms hide from predators whose keen eyesight has developed thanks to water’s high transparency?
A: Countershading (darker on top; lighter on bottom) & disruptive coloration (have colors that match environment they live in for stealth)
Q: What is the neritic province vs. the oceanic province?
A: Neritic = of the coast
Q: What are the 4 biozones of the oceanic province? Of the 4, which contains 54% of the ocean’s volume?
A: Epipelagic, Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, abyssopelagic***
H: 0-200m, 200-1000m, 1000-4000m, >4000m (in depth)
Q: Why does oxygen content decrease heavily below 150m?
A: No more (solely) photosynthetic algae that produce it easily
H: What is needed to produce oxygen?
Q: Where do bioluminescent fish start appearing?
A: Mesopelagic zone and deeper zones
H: Ability to produce light biologically
Q: Subneritic province contains the?
A: Intertidal zone and Subtidal zone
H: Covered this place in lab
Q: Suboceanic province (benthic environment below 200m) has what 3 biozones? Of the 3, which contains 75% of the ocean’s sea floor by area?
A: Bathyal (200-4000m), Abyssal (4000-6000m)***, Hadal (Below 6000m)
Q: The ocean is split into what 2 types of zones?
A: Biozones (benthic, pelagic) & Light Zones (photic, disphotic, aphotic)