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71 Cards in this Set

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What do students use to comprehend reading in L1 and L2?
Readers use their understanding of
-phonics,
-syntax,
-grammar,
-semantics and
-background knowledge of the topic to get meaning from text.
Elements of Comprehension
*Language Knowledge
*Background Knowledge of Genre and Subject
*Decoding and Vocabulary Knowledge
-Marzano – Background knowledge is represented by vocabulary.
*Metacognition
-“the process of analyzing our own comprehension processes or ‘thinking about thinking’ ”
-Strategy to repair understanding-- rereading
*Text structure
-Helps us make predictions about what to expect
Importance of Background Knowledge to Comprehension
*Provides vocabulary
*Allows the reader to bridge logical gaps the author leaves
*Allows chunking (increases room in working memory)
*Guides interpretation of ambiguous sentences
Reading Response/Literature Circles
*Why do literature circles?
-Collaboration and sharing
-Oral language development
-Higher level of participation/sense of community
-Scaffolding
*How to make them work
-Text offers generic questions and a list of projects
-BUT we know that ELLs need scaffolding, SO
Literature Circles According to Harvey Daniels
*Elements of Effective Scaffolding
-Predictability
-Playfulness
-Focus on meaning
-Role reversal
-Modeling
-Nomenclature
Literature Circles: Not Just Another 12-Step Program (a)
*Students choose their own reading materials.
*Small, temporary groups are formed, based on book choice.
*Different groups read different books.
*Groups meet on a regular, predictable schedule to discuss their reading.
*Kids use written or drawn notes to guide reading and discussion.
*Discussion topics come from the students.
Literature Circles: Not Just Another 12-Step Program (b)
*Group meetings should be open, natural conversations about books.
*In newly forming groups, students play a rotating assortment of task roles.
*The teacher serves as a facilitator, not group member or instructor
*Evaluation is by teacher observation and student self-evaluation.
*A spirit of playfulness and fun pervades the room.
*When books are finished, readers share with their classmates. New groups are formed around new reading choices
Response Project Ideas
*Oral Language
-Readers’ Theater
-Storytelling
-Songs/Chants/Poems
*Art
-Mural, mobile, collage
-Book Jackets
-Dioramas
*Theater
-Dramatizations/Dress up as character
-Puppet Show
Independent Reading
*Free Voluntary Reading
-No assignments attached
-SSR (Sustained Silent Reading)
-USSR
-DEAR Time
*Class Library
-Culturally appropriate
-Variety of genres
-Various difficulty levels
*Resource
-Houston Public Library Teacher Collections
Developmental Phases in L2 Reading
*Stages are not clearly delineated
-Intersection of age, L1 literacy, and L2 proficiency
*Beginning L2 Readers
-Just starting to pull meaning from short texts
-May be struggling with English alphabet and spelling patterns
-Have a small sight word vocabulary
-Can read predictable texts, but comprehension is still at sentence level
What to Do for L2 Beginning Readers
*Regardless of L1 literacy level, beginning readers need
-Immersion in reading and writing for readily perceived purposes
-Practice in sound/symbol correspondence in English and English print conventions
-Reading Practice!!!!!
Strategies to Support Beginning Readers (a)
*Language Experience
-Dictated text
-Structured follow-up
-Extension activities
*Quality Literature
-Help students make appropriate choices
-Leveled books
-Book baskets by topic and/or genre
-Literature as a common experience
-Teacher choices for student reading
Strategies to Support Beginning Readers (b)
*Pattern Books
-Predictable structure
-Repeated vocabulary
-Built-in practice
*Illustrating Stories and Poems
-Allows all levels of students to participate
-Provides opportunities to respond to literature
*Shared Reading with Big Books
-Simulates “lap reading” in larger setting
-Can be used for explicit instruction in conventions of print, word recognition, etc.
*Guided Reading
Strategies to Support Beginning Readers (c)
*Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA)
-Models how experienced readers make predictions as they think
-Responses can be oral or drawing
*Readers’ Theater
-Adapting texts for performance
-Teacher adapts text for beginners
-Some available online
*Choral Reading/Repeated Reading
*High Frequency Word Practice
-Consider practicing in phrases rather than individual words
*Story Mapping
Intermediate Readers: Characteristics and Strategies
*Characteristics
-Fairly large sight word vocabulary/some fluency
-Can comprehend some texts
-Generally can discuss orally in response groups
-Can read extended texts but have difficulty with unfamiliar vocabulary
-Can still benefit from strategies used with beginners
Intermediate Readers: Characteristics and Strategies (b)
*Cognitive mapping
-More complex than story mapping
-Can trace various elements
*Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
-Same as for beginners, except that students read the text on their own
*Literature Response Journals
*Develop Readers Theater Scripts
*Scripts for Film and Videotape
-Storyboards, Claymation
*Computer and CD-ROM
Assessing ELL Reading Progress
*Use materials students bring to class
*Informal Assessment
-Miscue Analysis
-Choose a passage slightly more difficult than what the child usually reads in class. Keep a copy to make notes on.
-Tape the student reading.
-Ask for a retelling of the passage after the student reads it.
-Listen to the tape and mark miscues.
-Look for patterns in errors.
-Informal Reading Inventory
-Running Records
-Student Self-Assessment
Elements of Optimal Content Learning
*Meaning and Purpose
*Prior Knowledge
*Integration of Opportunities to Use Oral and Written Language
*Scaffolding for Support
*Collaboration
*Variety
Sheltered Instruction
*Two Purposes
-Subject matter learning
-Target language development
-Comprehensible and cognitively demanding
*Generic Strategies
-Build on prior knowledge
-Use concrete materials/direct experiences
-Student collaboration
-Activities with oral and written language (Chamot & O’Malley, 1986)
Interactions with Text
*Rosenblatt sees two types of interaction with texts -
-Efferent- purpose is to carry away information
-Aesthetic- purpose is to be emotionally moved or to experience the text
*Teachers can facilitate comprehension by stating explicitly what students are to gain and what they are to do with what they’ve read.
Text Structure
*Awareness of text structure has a profound effect on comprehension and memory.
*Four Expository Text Structures
-Attributive/Enumerative - main idea followed by a list of supporting details
-Compare/Contrast
-Problem/Solution
-Cause/Effect
Cohesive Ties/Signal Words
*Signal words/phrases that indicate how ideas in text relate to each other
*Types
-Time Order – first, second, next
-Additive – in addition, moreover
-Cause and effect – due to, because
-Conclusive – In summary, in conclusion
-Minimization/Negation – nevertheless, however
More about Text Structure
*Headings and Subheadings
*Literary Structure
-setting, characters, conflict, sequence of events, denouement (problem resolution)
*Metacognition
-the act of reflecting on one’s own thinking
-includes the ability to monitor one’s own comprehension of the text and knowing
Prereading
*Develop Background Knowledge
-Class discussions, films, field experiences, experiments
-Visuals and realia
*Clear Purpose for Reading
*Preteach Important Vocabulary
*Structured Overviews
*Preview Guides
*Anticipation Guides
During Reading
*Headings and Subheadings
-DR-TA with headings and subheadings as the focus for creating questions
*Clustering and Graphic Organizers
*Jigsaw
*Learning Logs
Language Exposure Gap
*Graves & Slater – (1987)
-1st graders from high SES homes know twice as many words as 1st graders from low SES homes.
*Hart and Risley study (1995)-
-Average child- (native English speakers)
-Low SES family – hears 3 million words per year
-High SES family – 11 million words per year
To Know a Word
*Distinction between L,S,R,W
*What does it sound like? How is it pronounced? How is written? What does it mean? Does it change meaning depending on the context?
*Depth and breadth of word knowledge – gradual process over time
Word Frequency
How many words in English language?
Depends on what counts as a word. Most conservative estimate - 200,000
First 1,000 highest frequency words account for 84% words we hear in conversation PLUS
Next 1,000 highest frequency words account for 90% of words we hear in conversation and 78% of words in texts
Note: To comprehend academic texts – need to understand 95% of the words
Thinking about Vocabulary- Two Ways
1.- Three tiers -
-Dolch list – function words – (articles, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions) – best learned through daily exposure)
-First 2,000 – Common, crucial to comprehension, not part of prior knowledge, need to be pretaught
-Content area words – low frequency
2. Survival, academic, test vocabulary
Warning- Do not confuse vocabulary words with sight words or spelling words.
Learning New Words
*New concept or just a new label ? depends on L1 development, transferability from L1, possible cognates
*2 sources of vocabulary learning
-incidental - daily language experiences
-explicit instruction - teacher directed
Which Words to Teach?
Use direct instruction ONLY for words that
-are important to text comprehension
-occur frequently in the text
-can be generalized to other contexts
Effective Direct Vocabulary Instruction
*Instruction does not rely solely on definitions.
*Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic & nonlinguistic ways.
*Instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures.
*Teaching word parts (roots & affixes) enhances students’ understanding of terms.
*Students should discuss the terms they are learning.
*Focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success.
Marzano’s 6 Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction (2005)
*Teacher provides a description, explanation, or example of the new word or term.
*Students:
-restate the explanation in their own words.
-create a nonlinguistic representation of the word.
-engage in activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms.
-are asked to discuss the terms with one another.
-are involved in games that allow them to play with the terms.
Teaching Vocabulary: What Works?
*Read alouds
*Class discussions, cooperative groups, songs, chants
*Access to a variety of fiction and expository books of varied reading levels
*Computer assisted instruction
*Videos
*Direct instruction by the teacher
Word Wall Ideas for Beginners
*High frequency/survival words
*Include pictures with the words
*New words from a unit or theme
*Words from the same word family
*Group the words into categories: alphabetically, by theme, etc.
*Students should keep personal dictionaries
ACTIVITY: Selective Listening
*Place all of your word cards with the targeted words on the left side of the desk.
*As I read the story to you, move each word to the right side of the desk as you hear it.
Teaching Context Clues
*Using clues from the context requires more sophisticated interaction with the text.
*The teacher needs to model the process.
*Find examples of the different types of context clues in the text. (Is there a definition, explanation, restatement, synonym or antonym close by?)
*Ask students to identify the type.
Teaching Prefixes
*Present the prefix in isolation and also attached to four words.
*Define the prefix.
*Use the whole words in sentences.
*Define the whole words.
*Students practice matching different prefixes to their meaning, and root words to prefixes.
*Students identify the meanings of new words with familiar prefixes.
Vocabulary Building Techniques
*Student-created Bingo
*Concentration game
*Word Sorts – free, closed, timed
*Frayer Model - definition, characteristics, examples, non-examples
*KIM strategy – key word, information, memory cue
*Concept Attainment
*I Have-Who Has “I have the word _________. Who has the word that means _____?”
English Learners and Process Writing
*Processes similar for first and second language learners
-Use knowledge of language to create texts for different audiences and purposes
-Writing gradually approaches standard English
-In early stages, writing supported by drawing
*Differences in process
-Limitations related to L2 proficiency
-Vocabulary, syntax, idiomatic expressions
-Lack of experience with written forms of L2
-Lack of familiarity with structures used in written language
*Students benefit from literacy experiences in L2 before mastering phonological, semantic and syntactic systems of spoken English.
The Writing Process
*Five step recursive process
Prewriting
Drafting
Revising
Editing
Publishing
*Students’ communicative goals are central
audience
purpose
*Not all writing merits all five steps!
The Writing Process in Action – Prewriting & Drafting
*Write a list of five inconsequential items that mean a great deal to you.
*Beside each one, jot down where you got it, who gave it to you and why it’s important.
*Circle one of your items.
*Now write about it. Write as much as you can for 10 minutes. Don’t worry about being perfect; just get your ideas on paper.
The Writing Process in Action – Revising
*In pairs, read your draft to each other. The listener responds with
-a part of the draft you want to know more about
-a part of the draft that you had trouble understanding
-an appreciation.
*Each author makes notes, thanks his/her partner and decides how to use the information to improve his/her first draft.
The Writing Process in Action – Editing
Can be useful to use a rubric to check for writing conventions
Why writing process works with ELLs
*Use of personal writing
-Bridges previous experiences and school learning
-Helps develop positive relationships
-Gives students control over topic
*Use of peer tutoring
-Supports clarity and correctness in writing
-Provides comprehensible input
-Strengthens student relationships
Peer Response Groups
*Focus on content.
*Model appropriate responses.
-Share sample papers on overhead.
-Talk about literature.
-Find something positive!
*Give students techniques to help one another.
-Lead, focus, voice, show not tell, ending
-Six + 1 traits -- ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions, and presentation
*Provide a structure and clear guidelines.
Peer Editing and Publishing
*Focus on mechanics.
*For ELLs, set clear guidelines on what to look for.
-Provide a checklist of the features that students should know.
-Update it regularly.
*Publishing can take many forms.
-Newspapers
-Class and individual books
-Charts, posters, pamphlets
Process Writing and Scaffolding
*Empowers students by
-Allowing choice in topic
-Valuing student voices
-Allowing student collaboration
*Limits
-Insufficient scaffolding
-Not necessarily most effective approach (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
So, what do we do for writing development? (Beginners)
*Develop oral language
*Wordless picture books
*Concept books/unique forms
*Journals
-Personal
-Dialogue
-Buddy
*Freewriting
*Life Murals
*Lists/descriptions of common objects
*Writing Scaffolds
-Pattern Books/Poems
-Frames
So, what do we do for writing development? (Intermediate)
*Show Not Tell
*Sentence Combining/Shortening/Rewriting
*Sentence Modeling (from literature)
*Mind Mapping/Graphic Organizers
*Questions/Answers/Details
*Mini-Lessons
*Computer Support
Using Portfolios
*Documenting growth over time
*Allows students to choose which pieces to use to assess their work.
*Include student reflections.
*Use rubrics to measure student writing against a standard.
Working with errors
Fluency feeds into correctness and into form and they all feed into each other, but to obtain correctness you need scaffolds, modeling, and direct instruction
Balancing Instruction
*Scaffolds
-Routine of the writing process
-Feedback from peers
*Models
-Teacher’s written response
-Using literature as a model
-Editing and revision
*Direct Instruction
-Programmed materials
-Games
-Computer Programs
Behaviors for Reading Success
-Develop background knowledge
-Set a purpose for reading
-Monitor comprehension
-Organize information to remember what was read
Postreading Strategies (semantic feature analysis):
*Semantic Feature Analysis
-Graphic method of listing and analyzing critical attributes of a particular category or concept
-Matrix format
-Particularly useful for abstract relationships
-Related visual strategies
-Mapping
-Clustering
-Structured Overviews
Semantic Feature Analysis example:
Types of governments vs. features of such governments
Postreading Strategies (rehearsing)
*Reformulation or re-presentation of information to self or others
*Can be
-Repeating orally
-Paraphrasing and writing
-Using Venn diagrams
-Mapping
Postreading Strategies (other)
*Deep Practice (Daniel Coyle – The Talent Code)
*Mnemonic Devices
*Writing
-Journals and Learning logs (Teacher should respond about once a week)
Developing Topics/Project Ideas
*Allow for as much student choice as possible
(Context-enriched topics/projects)
-Embed abstract concepts in real-life contexts
-Photo Essays
-Written and Oral Collaborative Research – Oral Histories
-KWL+ (Organizing the “L” into a coherent format)
-Theme Study
Instructional Modifications for ELLs (key for final)
*More sheltering
-More realia
-Illustrate some vocabulary words
*Collaborative Grouping
-Strategic group assignment
*Mix whole class/small group activities
*Experimentation and interaction with concrete materials
*Use written language for a variety of purposes
Assessing Student Work
*Assessments should reflect activities
*Include experiments/oral work demonstrations/drawing
*Consider using portfolios
-Systematic plan for evaluation
-Clear rubrics
-Communicate standards to students AND parents
-Student choice in samples to include for evaluation
Instructional Cycle
ATRAI
*Assess student’s strengths/weaknesses.
*Teach based on needs.
*Reassess.
*Adjust instruction based on how well student responds and learns.
Creating Proficient Readers
*Students should be nudged to read texts that are increasingly more difficult (e.g. longer, more sophisticated vocabulary, more complex content).
*Learning needs should be addressed through scaffolding, modeling, and direct instruction.
Proficient readers:
*read with a purpose in mind,
*automatically decode,
*mentally process word sequences & sentences to construct meaning,
*use prior knowledge of text content and genre and
*monitor their own understanding as they read
Reading Assessment (IRI)
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) - commercially available assessment tool.
-Includes sets of passages of gradually increasing difficulty, PK-6.
-Following each passage is a set of comprehension questions for students to answer.
-Goal is to continue until a passage is reached where student has difficulty.
IRI Yields three levels of reading performance-
1. independent - relatively easy for student, 98% word recognition & 90% comprehension
2. instructional - 95% word recognition, 70% comprehension
3. frustration - 90% word recognition, below 70% comprehension
Echo Reading
*Teacher reads a sentence and student repeats or echoes it.
*Discover level of syntax child possesses or oral language level.
Guided Reading
*Teacher guides small group of students through a reading passage providing scaffolding along the way. Passage must be somewhat challenging.
*Assess comprehension and analyze students’ use of reading strategies.
Meaningful Differences (Hart and Risley 1995)
Many similarities across SES in the ways parents interacted with children

*Number of words heard by age 3
Professional families – about 30 million
Working class families – about 20 million
Welfare families – 10 million
Children from literate homes experience how much informal reading and writing before school?
Children from literate homes experience around 1,000 hours of informal reading and writing experiences before entering school (Adams, 1990).
What % of hispanic children are read to every day?
Only about 33% of Hispanic children are read to every day (National Center for Education Statistics).