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16 Cards in this Set

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Herring Species
-Blueback
-Alewife
-Shad
-Located throughout the Bay and in tributaries
-Seasonal... leave the ocean and swim into fresh water to spawn. Late in winter and early spring
Alewives and Blueback Herring
-Enter Chesapeake March to spawn in tributaries
-Move into the Bay and spend the summer
-Migrate into the ocean for the winter
-Both species are important forage fish
Menhaden
-not a herring per se.. ocean spawners
-members of clupeidae like the herring and alewife
-migrate from ocean into bay in spring... return to ocean in the fall
-Dense Menhaden schools in summer
-important endangered fishery
Atlantic Manhaden- Keystone species
-Forked tail swim up to 2 miles/day
-Well camoflaged-light on ventral surface and darkblue on dorsal
-lateral line for sensing and maintaining schools
Consuming Menhaden
-omega protein very significant
-not used for human food directly since it is oily and full of small bones
-the most important fish caught along Atlantic and Gulf coasts
Menhaden Protein
-Only about 10 cents at dock
-Used to make feed for chickens pigs and cattle
-Important food for predatory fish like mackarel bluefish and rockfish.
Menhaden problems
-threatened species in teh bay.. eastern stocks
-Menhaden crash may=ecosystem crash.. they control plankton and provide forage base.
Menhaden problem species affects others
-lack of menhaden makes striped bass move to other invertebrates for food... less nutritional value.
-results in loss of muscle and decrease in length to weight ratio.. long, lean stripers.
Menhaden- bottom up control
-Filter feeders.. reduce phytoplankton that decrease light and cause "dead zones"
-reduce impacts of "supply-side" nutrients
-The chesapeake had a benthic filter feeder-oysters and pelagic filter feeder- menhaden
menhaden decline continued
-large oceanic schools no longer abundant
-industry now focuses on estuaries particularly the chesapeake
Decline in menhaden
causes an increase in jellyfish
Emiliano Zapata
-1877-1919
-mexican agrarian reformer
-revolutionist
-guerilla leader 1911-1916
Omega
-argues that menhaden are not being overfished and that there are no ecological associated with decline
-they have become a convenient political target of those with concerns about commercial fishing- large boats close to shore more conspiciuous
-loss of adult fish in east coast areas due to cyclic trends in population
-however, others argue that the industry destroyed its own fishery and that increased catch of zeroes (fish less than a year old) will cause more problems
-argues that striped bass are eating the juvenile menhaden
-increasing net sizes used would decrease catch of juveniles
-soy products could replace much of the menhaden used.
Some options
-increase mesh size
-close fishing season after dec 1
-put the bay off limits to menhaden fishing
Shad in the Chesapeake
-shad are among the first to enter the bay in february
-spawn through april in fresh water
-adult shad return to sea in june
-young shad remain through summer and move to sea in fall
-remain at sea for 3-6 years then return to spawn
shad- poor mans salmon
-historically an important fishery... abundant
-food and even fertilizer
-also culturally ingrained in pa and md. shad roe and shad bakes are common in the spring