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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Benthic Effect
Interaction Between water and sediments
Benthic Environment
Biogeochemical Processes

Repository of Organic and Inorganic materials
Benthic (Greek)
Depths of the sea
refers to bottom community
plants, animals and bacteria of any size that live in the sediment.
plants, animals and bacteria that are attached to the bottom or subtrate; are capable of movement; or that live on teh sediment surface
bottom-feeding or bottom dwelling fish that food on teh benthic infauna and epifauna
Benthic Organisms
-Related by habitat, not phylogeny
-benthic communities have integrated functioning
-the processes of benthic organisms may be complementary or contradictory
-Release nutrients for primary production
-provide important human foods clams, oysters
-oxygenate sediments
-accumulate toxins
-Classic epifaunal, estuarine animal
-Well suited to estuarine existence
-Variable turbidity
-Variable oxygen
Crassostrea virginica
also called eastern oyster

-from nova scotia to venezuela
-chesapeake is from native american word "great shellfish bay"
Last commercial sailing vessel in the US
Decline of Chesapeake Oyster
-Dermo and MSX introduced in 1950s
-Clear evidence of demise before diseases
-Many believe that overharvest is the main cause of decline
Disease problem needs to be resolved before C. virginica can recover
-MSM and dermo prefer high salinities
-low salinity areas in N. Bay best locations for recovery efforts
-annual differences in rain can have a big impact on Oyster survival
The Chesapeake Oyster: Tragedy of the Commons
-The decline of common resources
-Management of a public resource for small group
-Highly controversial... watermen vs. aquaculture vs DNR
Captain John Smith
commented in journals that oyster reefs were a hazard to navigation
The presence of middens
indicate oysters were an important food for native americans
-Between overharvest and disease the Bay oyster population is <1% of historic levels
-This contributes to both economic and ecological problems
-The Bay was a benthic dominated system now its pelagic dominated
-C. virginica may not be adapted to the current Chesapeake
-Options: continue the "put and take" fishery or use aquaculture technology and leased bottom.
Oyster reproduction
-Oysters can switch gender
-Damaged oysters are usually male
-Oysters can be induced to tripoidy in hatcheries
Hatchery Spawning of Oysters
-Fatten at colder temperatures
-Increase temperatures to stimulate spawning
-Add stripped gametes to stimulate spawn
-transfew fertilized eggs to larval containers until ready for set.
Algae Culture- Food for oysters
-Diatoms, flagellates and LRGTs
-Up to 50% of the cost of a hatchery.
Resistance to Oyster Aquaculture in the Chesapeake
-Leasing Laws favor watermen
-Permits challenging
-Regarded as polluting activities
-aesthetic complaints
Circle C oyster ranch
-Rich Pelz=oyster biologist from Washington
-Use raft and upwelling system
-Uses a proprietary oyster the "lineback" from 40 years of breeding
Exotic oyster have been suggested for being introduced to the bay
C. gigas
C. ariakensis
Oyster aquaculture
Puget Sound has replaced chesapeake as premier oyster producer
Puget sound had collapes previously
due to overharvest of Olympia oyster
Puget Sound oyster industry reestablished by
-Use of nonindigenous species
-use of oyster aquaculture techniques
-private ownership of bottom
benefits of exotic oyster introduction
-restore fishery
-improve water quality
-reduce pressure on c. virginica
-reestablish oyster reef communities.
Concerns with exotic oyster introduction
-disease introduction
-food web effected.. pelagic dominated bay?
-competition and reproductive interference with c. virginica.