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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Paleozoic
Cambrian
Ordovician
Silurian
Devonian
Carboniferous
Permian
Mesozoic eras
Triassic
Jurassic
Cretaceous
Ordovician
First vertebrates
Sea serpents 2 m long
60% of all species disappeared
Silurian
First land animals like millipedes
First jawed fishes
First appearance of higher plant, Cooksonia
Devonian
First insects, First sharks, First trees and forests
Ray-finned fishes exploded! SO MANY
Lobefinned fishes
First land amphibians
Mass extinction of marine mammals
Carboniferous
Dragonflies with 70 cm wing spans
More O2 in air, allowed species to GROW
Anthracosaurs: amphibians that gave rise to birds, reptiles, and mammals.
First reptiles
Permian
Not much happened, other than
HUGE MASS EXTINCTION
70% of terrestrial species went extinct
Asteroid? Increased volcanology?
Mesozoic
Cotylosaurs (Stem reptiles)
Terapsida (mammal like reptile, gave rise to mammals)
Thecodontia(gave rise to dinosaurs)
1st birds
Luis Alvarez
Found iridium signature 65 mya
very uncommon on earth, common in meteors
Found 125 mile wide crater in Yucatan
Cenozoic
Tertiary
Quarternary
Tertiary
In Cenozoic
All animals small
Mesonychid: predators large as Trex
Andrewsarchus – 16 feet long!
Ancestors to whales
Ambulocetus (walking whale) paddle fore/hind limbs
Rodhocetus – forelimb (fin) hindlimb shrinks
Basilosaurus: very similar to whales, forelimb gone
Quarternary
2 mya-present
9 species of human
Homo habilus - tool user
homo erectus - left africa
homo heanderthalensis -230-130 mya
went extinct
homo sapiens - 130,000
start at africa, go up to europe 40k
Out of Africa model, cro magnum man
first HS in America 13000 yrs ago
Brian Sykes
7 daugthers of Eve
used mitochrondrial DNA
Used huge sample 6grade in England
established human origin 170 kya
dated out of africa, time of origin
only 7 different kinds of mtDNA from these kids,always maternal inheritance
Can trace out of Africa migration to 7 females
Protandry v. Protogyny
Protandry: Male first, then female
Protogyny: Female first, then male
Internal Fertilization
Facilitates extended parental care
Increased probability of fertilization
Parental investment per egg high
External Fertilization
Reduced parental care
Lower fertilization success
Multiple partners
• VARIABILITY of OFFPSRING
Most species in ocean with external fertilization have LONG DISPERSAL
• Large geographic range
• Species with internal fertilization, less dispersal, thus smaller ranges
• Bushier phylogeny
o Allopatric speciation
Last Male Advantage
Be the last male for your female
• Spiny-headed worm (acanthocephalan)
o They mate with females, then cement them shut: no more males
o Also try to mate with males, then cement them shut
• Damselflies
o Scoops out sperm if there are any in female, then has sex
• Onychophora
o Guys lay spermatophores on forest floor, females stand over, acidicly burn into her body, sperm go into her
Complex Life Cycles
Complex life cycles:
• Marine organisms and some insects
Egg-----Larva(immature)----Adult
Larva and and adults are separate organisms
Biogeography
Chardonnay now grown all over the world
Strong convergence! morphology similar but different species!
Ecological Equivalents
Independent evolution:
Kangaroos and buffalo (grazers)
Tasmanian devil and wolverine
Sugar glider and flying squirrels
Australian mole and moles
Australian mice (marsup) and mice
Alfred Russel Wallace
First great biogeographer
Ring Species
Salamanders in California
7 different types, all interbreed except two at ends.