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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the cardinal features of Paget's Disease?
1) increased density, 2) Increased size, 3) Coarsened trabeculae
What is required for radiologic hepatomegaly?
Vertical height in mid-clav line > 15.5 cm OR projection of liver edge beyond the inferior margin of the right kidney
What types of infiltrates can lead to hepatomegaly?
1) Cells, 2) blood, 3) fluid, 4) Fat, 5) Carbohydrate, 6) Iron, 7) Amyloid
DDx for splenomegaly (3 major categories)
1) Portal htn, 2) myeloproliferative dz, 3) infectious dz
Radiologic splenomegaly
projection of splenic tip below liver or left kidney OR > 14cm in any dimension
Film findings with mild ascities
loss of liver edge
film findings with moderate ascites
pelvic density, bladder ears
film findings with marked ascites
ground glass abd, buldging flanks, widened paracolic gutters, centralized bowel loops
Gas pattern in stomach
rugal folds
gas pattern in small bowel
plicae
gas pattern in large bowel
haustra
If your pt cannot stand upright, what is the best film to detect free air?
LLD film
Ddx for pneumoperitoneum
1) outside -- s/p surgery, penetrating trauma, 2) Inside -- perforated DU, perforated colon CA, 3) Infection -- emphysematous peritonitis
Composition of radio-opaque calculi
1) CaPO4, 2) Ca oxalate, 3) struvite, 4) uric acid
Ddx of pelvic mass in male
1) large bladder d/t obstructing BPH, 2) prostate CA
Ddx of pelvic mass in female
1) mucinous tumor of ovary, 2) non-calcified fibroid, 3) recent delivery
Approach to reading abd plain films
1) QC, 2) Lung bases and bones, 3) organ/soft tissue outlines, 4) Gas, Checkpoints 5) aberrant air, 6) calcifications, 7) paucity of gas
Detailed gas examination
1) lumen size, 2) air-fluid levels, 3) Contour, 4) bowel wall
What are the 2 major categories of obstruction?
1) Mechanical, 2) Functional (adynamic ileus)
Transition point favors which type of obstruction?
Functional
marked dilation favors which type of obstruction?
Mechanical
What are the three types of causes for mechanical bowel dilation?
1) Inside the lumen, 2) In the wall (benign or malignant), 3) Extrinsic
What are the two types of causes of functional bowel dilatation?
1) Generalized, 2) Focal (sentinel loop) -- pancreatitis, appendicitis, cholecystitis, pyelonephritis, abscess
DDx for short strictures
1) Tumor, 2) Inflammation, 3) Infection, 4) Trauma, 5) radiation, 6) Drugs, 7) Congenital
DDx of Ahaustral Colon
1) UC, 2) chronic laxative abuse, 3) chronic obstruction, 4) s/p ischemia, 5) s/p radiation
What causes thumbprinting?
focal infilatrations of bowel wall with edema, hemorrhage, and/or inflammatory cells.
Riglers sign
denotes free air in abd cavity (pneumoperitoneum)
Approach to detailed evaluation of gas patterns
1) identify, 2) check lumen diameter, 3) Check number of a/f levels, 4) check luman contour (ahaustral or thumbprinting), 5) check bowel wall (pneumatosis coli or Riglers)
Types of aberrant air collections can be of what types?
1) linear, 2) tubular, 3) branching, 4) pointed, 5) mottled
DDx of portal venous gas
1) Outside -- umbilical vein cath, 2) Inside -- bowel infarction, 3) infection -- emphysematous cholecystitis
DDx of biliary tract air
1) Outside -- external biliary stent, 2) Inside -- Tubular GI tract and biliary fistula, 3) Infection -- emphysematous cholecystitis
What are the 2 major categories of calcium outside the skeleton?
1) metastatic (hypercalcemic), 2) dystrophic (normocalcemic)
What appearance does a uterine fibroid have on abd plain film?
it is a hammartoma which demonstrates "popcorn calcification"
Paucity of gas indicates what?
1) a mass, 2) proximal obstruction
What is the classic triad of gallstone illeus?
1) Biliary tract air, 2) Low SBO, 3) Calcified RLQ stone
DDx Long stricture
1) IBD, 2) Ischemia, 3) Radiation