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24 Cards in this Set

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Biconcave Hematoma on CT from rupture of the middle meningeal artery
Epidural hematoma

Tx: Burr hole decompression
a concave collection of venous blood between the dura and the arachnoid from tears of the bridging veins
Subdural hematoma
Which patients are more prone to subdural hematomas
Patients with cortical atrophy, such as alcoholics and the elderly
These hematomas can cross suture lines but not he midline
Subdural hematomas
dilated ipsilateral pupil and contra- lateral hemiparesis can be caused by?
Transtentorial (uncal) herniation
How do you treat > ICP?
Elevate the head 30 degrees
Maintain MAP 90 mmHg
Maintain good arterial oxygen
Mannitol
Hyperventilation- last resort
How do you treat Post-traumatic seizures?
IV lorazepam or diazepam (Benzodiazepines)

Phenytoin (Dilantin)
fracture of the pedicles of the posterior arch of C2 caused by extension and distraction injury.
Hangman's fracture
an axial load compression fracture of the anterior and posterior arches of C1
Jefferson's fracture
the anterior longitudinal ligament avulses the anterior-inferior corner of the vertebral body.
Extension "teardrop" fracture
Injury to this tract results in contra- lateral pain and temperature sensory losses.
spinothalamic tract
Closed Spinal cord injuries should be treated with?
High-dose methylprednisolone
Fracture where the hard palate and upper teeth move with stressing; transverse Fx that results in a floating maxilla
Lefort I
Fracture where the nose, hard palate, and upper teeth move as a unit disjoined from the zygomas with stressing. Pyramidal shaped
Leort II
A fracture into the orbit; the entire face moves with stressing.
Lefort III
enophthalmos, persistent diplopia, and entrapment of the extra-ocular muscles, decreased EOM suggests?
Orbital floor fracture
Structures at risk in Zone 2: Cricoid cartilage to the angle of the mandible
carotid and vertebral arteries

Jugular vein, esophagus,
trachea, larynx, and the spinal cord.
Structures at risk in Zone 3: angle of the mandible to the base of the skull
The distal carotid and vertebral arteries

Pharynx, and the spinal cord.
What is the initial and definitve management of tension pneumothorax
Initial: needle decompression

Definitive: Chest tube placement
What is the management of an open pneumothorax
Place an occlusive dressing over the wound and immediately place an intercostal chest tube
What is the mainstay treatment of rib fractures?
Analgesia
What is Beck’s triad
JVD
Hypotension
muffled heart sounds
a 10-15 mm drop in systolic blood pressure with inspiration
Pulsus paradoxus
most common presenting finding with spleen rupture
Hypotension from hemorrhage