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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between an inguinal hernia and a scrotal hernia?
Inguinal hernia: Intestines are passing through the inguinal canal into the inguinal area.
Scrotal hernia: Intestines are passing through the inguinal canal into the scrotum.
What is the difference between a direct inguinal hernia, and an indirect inguinal hernia?
Indirect: The intestines are contained within the vaginal tunic.
Direct: There is a rent in the vaginal tunic or peritoneum and the intestines are directly beneath the skin.
How do hernias in foals usually present?
Direct inguinal hernias
Congenital and hereditary
Typically reducible
Do not usually strangulate/incarcerate
How do hernias in adult horses usually present?
Indirect inguinal hernias
Acquired
Non-reducible
Herniated bowel gets strangulated/incarcerated
Colic signs
What is conservative treatment for a foal with a hernia?
Box stall rest
Manual reduction of the hernia several times a day
Possibly application of a truss (pressure bandage)
Close monitoring for complications
graves
serious
What is the "twist and tack" technique?
The testicle and tunic are twisted to decrease the internal diameter of the inguinal canal, followed by a transfixation ligature around the tunic and spermatic chord, which is then anchored to the external abdominal oblique muscle. followed by removal of the testicle.
What is the surgical treatment for adult horses with acquired inguinal hernias?
If the bowel is not incarcerated, laparoscopic herniorrhaphy may be performed using a mesh to occlude the internal inguinal ring.
If the bowel is compromised, resection may be needed.
True or false:
Breeding stallions need to retire if one testicle is removed after a hernia.
False! Breeding stallions can still cover, as the contralateral testicle hypertrophies and almost 80% of the original sperm count is attained.
What are the clinical signs of spermatic chord torsion?
Unilaterally enlarged testicle
Firm swelling of the testicle
Pain on palpation
Signs of colic
What is the treatment for torsion of the spermatic chord?
Castration of the affected testicle
What is the most common neoplasia of the equine prepuce and penis?
Squamous cell carcinoma
True or false:
Smegma accumulation in the prepuce may predispose to development of SCC
True: either through chronic irritation or unidentified carcinogens within smegma
What are squamous papillomas?
Pre-cancerous lesions that may progress into SCC
What virus related skin tumor is most common in horses?
Sarcoids
What is the first sign of neoplasia on the penis or prepuce?
The horse urinates without extending its penis.
What treatments are available for neoplasia of the penis or prepuce?
Chemotherapy (topical, intratumoral)
Cryosurgery
Circumcision
Penis amputation
En-bloc resection of penis and lymph nodes
What aspect of the bladder is most likely to rupture in foals?
Rupture is usually seen on the dorsal aspect of the bladder, where the wall is thinnest
When might you see bladder rupture in an adult horse?
Urethral obstruction
In what age horse is it most common to diagnose bladder rupture?
1-7 day old foals
What are the clinical signs of bladder rupture?
Initially no signs are noticeable
After 1-3 days:
Depression
Anorexia
Abdominal distention
Colic
True or false:
If the owners have seen the foal urinate, you can rule out bladder rupture.
False, Foals often strain to urinate and may urinate smaller amounts more frequently than normal.
What lab abnormalities are seen with bladder rupture?
Hyponatremia
Hypochloremia
Hyperkalemia
Hemoconcentration
Metabolic acidemia
Azotemia
What would abdominocentesis show in a foal with a ruptured bladder?
Creatinine levels 2x or greater in abdominal fluid than plasma.
What needs to be done preoperatively with a foal with a ruptured bladder?
IV fluids
Peritoneal drainage if distention is severe
Correct electrolyte imbalances
Consider postponing surgery if foal is severely compromised (catheterize bladder in the mean time)
NSAIDS, abx
What is the procedure for repairing a ruptured bladder?
Cystorrhaphy under general anesthesia in dorsal recumbency.
What can you do if it is difficult to identify the rent in the bladder wall?
Distend bladder retrograde with sterile methylene blue
What are the most common type of uroliths that horses get?
Ca carbonate uroliths with a spiculated surface
What are the clinical signs of urolithiasis?
Stranguria
Pollackuria
Hematuria
Weight loss
Signs of colic
True or false:
A horse with a urolith will always be azotemic
False, the horse will only be azotemic if there is a full obstruction.
What are some surgical treatment options for obstructive urolithiasis?
Perineal urethrotomy
Via laparotomy
Via flexible endoscopy and snares
Via nephrectomy
What treatment prevents urolith recurrence?
Urine acidification
Don't feed alfalfa
What are some possible complications of urethrotomy?
Urethral hemorrhage
Cystitis
Urethritis
Urethral stricture
Recurrence of urolithiasis
What are some possible complications of cystotomy?
Peritonitis
Abdominal incisional dihiscence
Cystitis
Recurrence of urolithiasis
What can indicate permanent renal damage from uroliths?
Azotemia that persists post-operatively.