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207 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A dog barks whenever the exterminator comes into the apartment. The dog's master attempts to control the dog's reaction by talking nicely to it, soothing it with strokes and petting, etc. in the presence of the exterminator. This type of treatment is termed:

A) abreaction
B) covert sensitization
C) reciprocal inhibition
D) avoidance conditioning
You would not diagnose as retarded

A) an individual who is institutionalized and who has Down's syndrome
B) a youngster whose IQ is below 60 and who exhibits stereotypic behaviors
C) an adult who has deteriorated to a full-scale IQ of 50 from a normal level of functioning as a result of a brain tumor
D) a third grade boy who cannot read, whose performance scores are more than 2 SD below the mean and whose parents report abnormal behavioral patterns at home
You would find the smallest variance if _______ were used.

A) the whole population
B) a large sample
C) a sample of means
D) a small sample
If you as an independent psychologist learn during the first interview that the client is currently receiving services from another professional, your most ethical response would be to

A) consult with the other professional before scheduling any further appointments
B) inform the client that you cannot offer your services without first informing the other professional
C) recognize that, as a consumer, this client has the right to use professional services in whatever way he/she perceives to be in his his/her best interests
D) discuss the issues raised with the client so as to minimize any confusion
Job analysis refers to the process of

A) determining the specific skills and behaviors that are required for doing a given job effectively
B) determining the job aptitudes of incumbents which distinguish successful from unsuccessful people
C) screening job applicants for a given job based upon the results of a job-related assessment measure
D) presenting the job equities and inequities to the job applicants
Item analysis is a procedure to evaluate the

A) factor structure of a test
B) reliability of the test
C) intercorrelations of test items
D) extent to which individual test items discriminate the same way as the overall test
The prognosis of schizophrenia is most favorable when

A) the patient has no apparent anxiety
B) the patient is in on-going psychotherapy
C) a significant period of time has elapsed with no schizophrenic episodes
D) the patient's family is engaged in coping-skills therapy
A child says that rocks in a stream push the water. According to Piaget, this would be called

A) egocentricity
B) magical thinking
C) animism
D) artificialism
Moral realism is associated with the Piagetian stage of

A) preoperations
B) concrete operations
C) formal operations
D) sensorimotor
The therapy modality which would least likely involve an expert is

A) rational emotive therapy
B) feminist therapy
C) transactional analysis
D) reality therapy
Lesions to Wernicke's area of the brain would most likely result in

A) deficits in language processing
B) deficits in expressive speech
C) deficits in processing afferent sensory information
D) all of the above
A child is presented with 2 toys, both equally desirable, and is asked to choose between them, thus playing with one and giving up the other. This paradigm is

A) approach-approach
B) approach-avoidance
C) avoidance-avoidance
D) neither approach nor avoidance
Applicants are applying for a position at a firm at which you are the psychologist. You are asked to administer a battery of tests to determine which applicants are homosexual in order to screen them out. Ethically you should

A) explain that projective tests are unreliable for this purpose and proceed with the job
B) consult the Committee on Ethical Standards for Psychology for a ruling
C) decline the job as it is a violation of the rights of the applicants
D) proceed with the job only if you are allowed to inform the applicants beforehand the purpose of the tests
The curative process in psychoanalysis is to successfully analyze the

A) mechanisms of defense
B) resistances and the transference neurosis
C) unconscious drives
D) unconscious drive derivatives
The revised version of the Vineland Scale requires data on the individual's adaptive behaviors based on

A) caretaker interviews
B) direct observations
C) subject interviews
D) work samples
A GRE score of 650 would correspond to a z-score of approximately

A) 1.5
B) 2.0
C) 2.5
D) none of the above
A middle-aged male patient begins treatment with you, and following a month states that from the time he started with you he has had constant, severe headaches. You should

A) interpret the psychosomatic nature of this
B) refer him to a physician
C) suggest he try a different kind of therapy
D) explain to him psychotherapy is often a difficult process
The reinforcement schedule in which scallops typically occur is

A) fixed interval
B) variable interval
C) fixed ratio
D) variable ratio
An unconditioned response is paired with a Stimulus A. Stimulus A is then paired with Stimulus B. This process of conditioning is known as

A) trace conditioning
B) response-response conditioning
C) higher-order conditioning
D) generalization
A major evaluation study of a community-based rehabilitation program concluded that the success was greatest for the programs which served a large number of clients, had sufficient resources and used short-term therapy aimed at teaching skills and keeping the client active. This type of assessment can best be termed

A) criterion evaluation
B) formative evaluation
C) predictive evaluation
D) summative evaluation
Behavioral approaches dealing with autistic children would employ primarily

A) second-order conditioning
B) negative reinforcement
C) sensory preconditioning
D) shaping
Pairing relaxation with imagined anxiety-provoking scenes is known as

A) counterconditioning
B) classical conditioning
C) paired reinforcement
D) aversive conditioning
If in a research study a priori estimates are low, it is best to

A) increase sample size
B) abandon the study
C) use a nonparametric statistical analysis
D) decrease the number of variables studied
The best predictor of positive treatment outcome is

A) labile emotions
B) low interpersonal conflict
C) high subjective distress
D) obsessive style
For women experiencing menopause, psychological functioning is

A) not significantly affected
B) depressed during this period but not afterward
C) not affected if HRT is employed
D) negatively affected in the long-run but not in the short-run
A psychologist receives a call from a patient on the afternoon before she, the psychologist is preparing to leave for a weekend vacation. The patient is quite distressed and is threatening suicide. The psychologist, because of the time constraint, advises the patient to go to the hospital emergency room immediately. The psychologist phones the hospital the following Monday to check that everything is okay with the patient. The response of the psychologist was

A) ethical because she gave the best advice she could at the moment
B) unethical because she should have called the psychiatrist herself
C) unethical b/c she did not adhere to standard practice
D) unethical b/c she didn't have evidence that the threat was real
You have a couple in psychotherapy who are now divorcing. The husband has asked you to turn over your records to his attorney. His wife has refused permission for you to do so. You should

A) turn over only those records which pertain to the husband
B) refuse to turn over anything until you get consent from both people
C) release the records since any one of the two can give informed consent
D) set up individual consultation appointments to discuss this with each of them
A researcher was studying the effects of a new psychological intervention. She placed the first twenty people who volunteered for the research into the experimental group, and the next twenty were put into the control group. The main threat to internal validity in this design is

A) selection bias
B) instrumentation
C) cohort effect
D) Rosenthal effect
For a negatively skewed distribution, the mean

A) is higher than the median
B) is lower than the median
C) is equal to the median
D) cannot be reliably determined
According to Erikson, the modal developmental issue during the second year of life is

A) industry vs. inferiority
B) trust vs. mistrust
C) autonomy vs. shame
D) rapprochement vs. symbiosis
The difference between childhood schizophrenia and infantile autism is that

A) you can't diagnose infantile autism until the child has language, but you can diagnose childhood schizophrenia before age 2
B) autism can be diagnosed before childhood schizophrenia can
C) childhood schizophrenia requires the presence of delusions or hallucinations while infantile autism does not
D) childhood schizophrenia is reserved for children whose 1st-degree relatives are schizophrenic
The difference between Schizophrenia and Schizophreniform Disorder is

A) essentially only one of length of duration of symptoms
B) that schizophrenia requires evidence of earlier onset while schizophreniform disorder occurs after age 30
C) that there are no hallucinations or delusions with schizophreniform disorder
D) that schizophreniform disorder is the term used in Britain while schizophrenia is the term used in the US
Compared to classic psychoanalysis, ego psychologists posit that the the ego

A) includes the id drives
B) derives its energy from the id
C) is invested with its own energy
D) should not be analyzed since it is conflict-free
A patient you are seeing for a short time tells you she loaned her previous therapist a large amount of money and he hasn't repaid the loan. She is very upset at this time and she feels it is not only unethical but probably criminal that he hasn't repaid. You should

A) report the therapist to the appropriate ethics committee
B) speak to the therapist yourself
C) have the therapist arrested
D) ignore this information and continue treatment
A woman of 35 years of age who had been a leader in a religious cult had left the group she had been living with approximately one month before being found wandering aimlessly around in a small town. She hadn't eaten for several days, was dehydrated, and was speaking in metaphors. She claimed to be addressing her deceased parents. Her immediate family members denied any history of schizophrenia or delusional disorder in the family. The most likely initial diagnosis, based on this information, would be

A) schizophrenia, disorganized type
B) schizophreniform fugue state
C) brief reactive psychosis
D) diagnosis deferred
Mother's WAIS-R score and child's WISC-III IQ score

A) are more highly correlated for daughters than for sons
B) cannot be correlated since they are two different tests
C) are correlated approximately .80
D) are correlated approximately .50
You are a psychologist recently hired at a treatment center with a large client population of one ethnic group which is different from yours. You have done some reading about treatment issues relevant to this group, but have had little experience in actually working with this population. Your most current course of action would be to

A) continue to take courses in this area and get appropriate supervision
B) take on only one client from this population until you feel comfortable with more, and receive supervision
C) continue to read books and articles about therapy with this population
D) refer these clients to someone else with more experience
The condition during pregnancy that would least likely affect the developing fetus is

A) mother's emotional state during pregnancy
B) amount of alcohol consumed by mother during pregnancy
C) age of ovum at conception
D) age of the mother at conception
Most current research on leadership styles indicates that

A) high consideration leads to higher productivity
B) laissez-faire leadership is best under high stress situations
C) contingency styles are most appropriate
D) facilitating leadership styles for group decision making is optimal
In comparison to separately correlating 20 variables with each other, correlating 200 variables with each other would

A) increase the probability of a Type II error
B) increase the probability of a Type I error
C) increase the statistical power
D) decrease the probability of a Type II error
A psychological experiment involved, in part, administering shocks to subjects. It has previously been determined that the level of shock to be used would be below the pain threshold for humans and that no after effects have been found with this level of shock. According to APA ethics, however

A) this type of experiment is not addressed and the psychologist should instead look to the Standards for Research for appropriate guidelines
B) the psychologist should have re-designed the experiment to eliminate the use of shock at all
C) this is clearly unethical
D) this is acceptable as long as subjects were notified in advance, informed consent was gotten and they were allowed to drop out at any time
In estimating the reliability of a test, if the coefficient alpha is low

A) the test was too long
B) the test items have little in common
C) the sample used was limited in the ability assessed
D) an alternative form measure would be more appropriate
A test which does not correlate highly with itself most likely

A) lacks adequate validity
B) lacks adequate reliability
C) is too short
D) was normed on the wrong group
Which of the following are NOT normal development phenomena among infants and young children?

A) stranger anxiety
B) separation anxiety
C) fear of animals
D) avoidance anxiety
The principal goal of vocational rehabilitation is to promote

A) suitable employment
B) increased social skills
C) comprehensive rehabilitation of the whole person
D) community involvement and prevention programs
A student at a post-graduate training institute is required to be in therapy and under supervision as well as to take classes. The institute is small and often the same psychologist would be the supervisor, the therapist, and the teacher for a candidate. According to the revised ethics, this situation is

A) unethical because it involves dual relationships
B) ethical since the institute is small and it can't be helped
C) not addressed by ethics
D) ethical if everyone agrees to this situation in advance
The relationship between age and accident rates across most work settings is that

A) there is no direct relationship between age and accidents
B) it is directly related
C) it is inversely related
D) there is a U-shaped relationship
If you are comparing the results of a psychological treatment for two groups but you are not sure of the homogeneity of variance of the data, you would most likey use

A) discriminant analysis
B) chi square test
C) linear correlation
D) Mann-Whitney U test
If several outcome measures are used to test the effects of a particular psychological treatment, which would most likely show the least improvement over an attention-placebo control group?

A) personal adjustment
B) self-esteem
C) school/work achievement
D) fear/anxiety
The phonics approach to teaching word decoding relies most on synthesizing component

A) morphemes
B) phonemes
C) syntax
D) lexical markings
According to the revised ethical principals, ultimate responsibility for assuring ethical practice in research rests with

A) the psychologist actually running the operations of the research
B) the principal investigator
C) students and/or employees who are engaged in dealing with the experimental subjects
D) all the above
The person who is unable to recognize certain objects when grapsed, and is unaware of that deficit, would most likely suffer from

A) agnosia
B) ataxia
C) aphasia
D) akinesia
A behavioral explanation of a phobic personality would be
A) stimulus generalization and attention
B) response generalization and stimulus control
C) response differentiation and conditionability
D) stimulus discrimination and inherited preconditioning
A test of psychomotor ability used for occupational selection would tend to
A) predict a wide variety of jobs requiring fine motor skills
B) predict a wide variety of jobs requiring fine motor skills as well as visual-spatial skills
C) be predictive of only a specific job for which the test was designed
D) not be any more predictive of job success than a cognitive aptitude test
For job selection purposes the type of test in a test battery which shows the highest differential validity among the tests is
A) a test of general intelligence
B) a test of psychomotor ability
C) an aptitude test
D) a personality test
The risk of heart attacks is highest for individuals who are classified as
A) Type A personality with genetic history of heart failure
B) Type A personality under perceived stress
C) borderline personality with aggression
D) narcissistic personality with unsocialized aggression
The Rationale Emotive Therapy paradigm assumes that maladaptive responses are based
A) too many 'musts' and 'shoulds' in the person's belief repertoire
B) incongruence between the individual's ideal and phenomonological selves
C) faulty causal attributions
D) abnormally low feelings of self-efficacy
It has been found that abused children often cling to their abusive parents. This can be explained in behavioral terms as the effect of
A) extinction
B) delayed conditioning
C) intermittent reinforcement
D) spontaneous recovery
All of the following of Freud's cases are correctly matched EXCEPT
A) Little Hans - - paranoia
B) Dora - - hysteria
C) Rat Man - - obsessional neurosis
D) Wolf Man - - infantile personality disorder
For any disorder which is tramsnitted via an autosomal dominant gene, such as Huntington's Chorea, the change of an offspring having the disease given that one parent has it is
A) 50%
B) 25%
C) 75%
A test with a reliability of .50
A) explains only 25% of the variance in test performance
B) is useful as a preliminary screening test but will not be valid for future prediction
C) should not be used because of the large error variance
D) should be re-standardized on another sample
A criticism of using multiple aptitude batteries for classification is that they lack a
A) differential validity
B) standardized subnorms
C) content validity
D) predictive validity
The use of assessment centers for the purpose of job selection would be most appropriate when selecting for
A) managerial-level employees
B) line supervisors
C) clerical employees
D) secretarial employees
Significant results in a 2-tailed test indicate that you can
A) conclude that the experimental group did better than the control group
B) conclude that the control group did better than the experimental group
C) conclude that the two groups performed differently
D) make no assumptions regarding how the two groups did
The standard error of the mean is
A) smaller as sample size gets smaller
B) smaller as the sample size increases
C) equal to the variance of the parent distribution
D) larger as sample size increases
The validity score (F), correction score (K), and lie score (L) of the MMPI-2 are useful in determining
A) response biases of individual testees
B) response biases of subgroup
C) response biases for groups identified by scale profiles
D) norms for each scale
A psychologist assessed job behaviors for a job that would utilize a selection test. This type of resulting validity was to ensure
A) predictive validity
B) construct validity
C) content validity
D) concurrent validity
Work samples used as selection procedures have been found to be predictive of job behaviors for assembly-line employees because they
A) approximate the actual work situation
B) allow the assessor the chance to observe behaviors in structured situations
C) are the most cost effective method of assessing an individual's behaviors
D) meet federal criteria for job selection procedures
The relationship between job satisfaction and job turnover is
A) positive
B) inverse
C) negative
D) close to zero
A school psychologist complained to her supervisor that teachers in the special ed unit to which she consults have themselves been using psychological tests as part of thei assessment batteries. The school psychologist felt that such tests should be administered only by a qualified psychologist even though she understood that such psychologists are not readily available. The teachers contended that they couldn't wait for a psychologist to become free to give the test, that they all worked as a team anyway, and that the test results were available to the psyhologist to comment upon. According the general guidelines for providers the psychologist
A) should have allowed the teachers to administer the tests as long as the psychologist was able to review and comment upon the results before the report was written
B) should have made herself more available to administer the tests; failing that she should have recognized the competence of her colleagues
C) should have made no mention of the situation b/c of the constraints of the staffing situation and the press of time
D) acted correctly
Dreams, parapraxis, jokes, and psychotic regressions are all characterized by
A) primary process thinking
B) secondary process thinking
C) failure of repression
D) both failure of repression and secondary process thinking
The concordance rate of .50 between pairs of IQ scores is classically found to be between
A) identical twins
B) adopted chldren and foster paretns
C) children and natural parents
D) husbands and wives
You as a school psychologist are asked by a parent to assess the intelligence of her 3 month old child. You should explain to her that the results of available developmental measures are
A) unrelated to IQ scores later in the infant's life
B) predictive of later IQ scores only for extremely delayed children
C) predictive of later non-verbal IQ scores
D) invalid since no appropriate norms exist for this young an infant
The telephone company has hired a psychologist to review the standard procedures directory assistance operators use. The psychologist consults her colleagues in the areas of engineering, cognitive, and social psychology and recommends that the operators do not say "have a nice day" after they give the telephone number requested. She did this because
A) such phrases interfere with short term memory consolidation
B) affective statements tend to have a paradoxial effect in "blind" communications
C) it wastes time as research has shown that such phrases have no positive effect on attitude change
D) it often confuses the operators whose pace of search-and-report is interfered with
It has been found that some normally involuntary responses can be modifed with operant conditioning. This finding has most significant implications for the treatment of
A) kleptomania
B) tic disorders
C) sexual paraphilias
D) psychophysiological disorders
A person with lesions in the parietal lobe is most likely to exhibit problems with
A) language
B) balance
C) vision
D) sensation
According to the fundamental attibution error, people have a tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors as opposedd to situation factors when explaining the behavior of others. Research in this area has shown
A) the fundamental attribution error was an artifact of retrospective reporting
B) the fundamental attribution error is univerally found across cultural environments
C) there are cultures in which people tend to favor situational attributions for the behavior of others
D) the fundamental attribution error is better understood as a special case of the self-serving bias
Which of the following would be an example of consultee-centered consulation
A) helping the chief of psychiatry redesign the program for patients with dual diagnoses
B) helping the staff psychologist manage aggressive inpatients
C) helping the ward nurse manage a delirious patient who is shouting obscenities
D) helping staff resolve problems with tardies and absenteeism
A researcher is investigating the effects of type of therapy of self report of system improvement. Symptom improvement is measured on a scale of 0 (no improvement) to 10 (completely cured). Types of therapy include psychoanalytic, cognitive behavioral, and gestalt. In deciding between using a one-way ANOVA or three t-tests, the researcher should be most concerned about
A) possible violations of homoscedastity
B) the lack of a control group
(C) the number of subjects in each group
(D) type I error
Which of the following best describes primary prevention

A) early identification of and early intervention with a disease
B) reduction of handicapping associated with an illness
C) reduction of an incidence of a disorder
D) community wide education and encouragement for behavior change
It is thought that reinforcement plays a role in
A) shaping
B) chaining
C) superstitious behavior
D) avoidance conditioning
Children whose parents are authoritative are likely to evidence what pattern in relating to their peers
A) high responsiveness and high handedness
B) low responsiveness and high handedness
C) high responsiveness and low handedness
D) low responsiveness and low handedness
Performance on which of the following tasks is likely to be enhanced by being observed
A) atypical tasks
B) difficult tasks
C) novel tasks
D) routine tasks
A DSM-IV diagnosis that is found in equal prevalence among males and females
A) borderline personality disorder
B) obsessive-compulsive disorder
C) major depression
D) alcohol abuse
After dating a man for a month, you learn that his brother is your patient. what would be your most ethical course of action
A) discuss the situation with your patient and continue treating him as long as you can establish that your objectivity is not impaired and that is no risk of exploitation
B) discuss the situation with your boyfriend
C) terminate the relationship with your patient after making an appropriate referral and providing pre-termination counseling
D) terminate your relationship with your patient's brother
Withdrawal from all the following substances can lead to autonomic hyperactivity, seizures and even death except
A) alcohol
B) valium
C) cocaine
D) phenobarbital
A researcher develops a questionnaire intended to assess level of depression. When she calculates the reliablity of this questionnaire she obtains a coeffiecint of 0.65. What should she do about this instrument's reliability
A) she should do nothing since .65 is acceptable
B) she should make the items in the instrument more diverse in order to increase reliability
C) she should use subjects who are more diverse in terms of their level of depression
D) she should decrease the number of items in the instrument
Austic individuals have been found to have smaller than normal what part of the brain?
A) medulla
B) amygdala
C) cerebellum
D) hippocampus
the subjects determind the amount of pay
D) withhold payment until the subjects ask for it
To decrease bystander apathy you would

A) increase anonymity
B) decrease anonymity
C) decrease the visibility of the victim's distress
D) increase the number of people in the group
Which of the following is least true regarding the results of research concerning television viewing and children?

A) There is a clear positive correlation between watching violent television content and violent behavior.
B) Children in lower socioeconomic status families watch more television than children in higher SES families.
C) Children cannot distinguish between television programming and commercils until they are at least five years of age.
D) Children can learn positive behavior from television as well as negative behavior.
A psychologist hires a graduate student to administer and score WISC-IV tests to children. This is

A) unethical because only licensed psychologists should administer the standardized intelligence tests.
B) ethical as long as it is in line with the test manual's recommendations.
C) ethical as long as the work is done under supervision and the interpretation is undertaken by the psychologist.
D) unethical because there is no check on scoring errors.
If the reliability of a test is perfect (i.e. 1.00), the standard error of measurement is

A) zero
B) equal to the standard deviation of the scores
C) + 1.00
D) equal to the square root of the validity coefficient
To conclude that a difference exists in the population when in fact it does not is an example of

A) Accepting the null hypothesis
B) Type I error
C) Type II error
D) low statistical power
In which situation would you least likely use a chi-square test? When you were analyzing the

A) frequency of passing an entrance exam for police cadet training among a group of men and women by ethnicity

B) number of high-school seniors who admitted to having substance abuse problems versus the number of college students who admitted to having substance abuse problems

C) proportion of adult men and women voters in the country who describe themselves as conservative, moderate, or liberal

D) percentage of subjects who have continued or who have discontinued bulimic eating behaviors following an intensive treatent program compared to their pre-treatment baseline behaviors.
A t-score of 70 is equivalent to

A) the 70th percentile
B) the 98th percentile
C) 1 standard deviation above the mean
D) 2 standard deviations above the mean
Tom and Eric both took the same test. Tom scored at the 93rd percentile, where as Eric scored at the 45th percentile. A mistake was uncovered in the scoring process and 3 extra points were added to Tom's and Eric's raw scores. Whose percentile would be impacted more by this error?

A) Tom's percentile would increase more
B) Eric's percentile would increase more
C) Tom's and Eric's percentiles would not change
D) Tom's and Eric's would increase the same
The mother of a newborn infant awakens when she hears the faintest cry of her child but is able to sleep through an earthquake that measures 4.5 on the Richter scale. This phenomenon can be attributed to the activity of the

C) hippocampus
D) hypothalamus
The following neurotransmitter system is involved in Alzheimer's disease

A) cholinergic
B) serotonergic
C) catecholaminergic
D) dopaminergic
A psychologist places the following ad in the newspaper: "Guaranteed solutions to your problems. Call Dr. X, licensed psychologist, 800-555-1212. Credit cards accepted, sliding scale. You'll feel better after you talk it out." Which of the following is true about this ad?

A) The ad appears to be ethically acceptable
B) The ad is unethical because the first sentence is misleading
C) The ad is unethical because the first and last sentences are misleading
D) The ad is unethical because the first and last sentences, we well as the phrase "licensed psychologist" is misleading.
The ethical principles _______ the provision of free and low-cost services.

A) require
B) encourage
C) discourage
D) prohibit
Dreams are typically remembered if the individual is awoken

A) just prior to REM sleep
B) during REM sleep
C) every 90-100 minutes as you cycle through the stages of sleep
D) immediately after REM sleep
Anomia means a patient is

A) unable to comprehend spoken language.
B) unable to form coherent sentences.
C) unable to name familiar objects.
D) malingering to appear mute for disability purposes.
Anticholinergic side effects of antipsychotics are best described by which of the following effects?

A) Dry mouth, delayed ejaculation
B) Blurred vision, unrinary retention
C) slowed metabolism, low body temperature
D) A & C
E) A & B
Which of the following brain structures serves a relay station for all sensory modalities except olfaction?

A) hypothalamus
B) corpus callosum
C) thalamus
D) hippocampus
If a person presents you with an argument for a particular position and then retracts it, you will likely

A) agree with that position
B) be more resistant to persuasion towards that position in the future
C) view the person as indecisive
D) view yourself as intimidating
To extinguish a classically conditioned response you would

A) omit the CS
B) omit the US
C) withhold reward
D) administer punishment along with reinforcement
Functional amnesia is characterized by

A) deficits in semantic memory
B) deficits in procedural memory
C) retrograde amnesia
D) amnesia for autobiographical information
A child constantly argues with authority figures, loses his temper easily, breaks rules both at home and in school, and occasionally gets into physical fights. The most accurate diagnosis would be

A) oppositional defiant disorder
B) conduct disorder
C) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
D) pervasive developmental disorder
Psychoanalytic theory and objects relations theory share which of the following in common?

A) an emphasis on the conflict between the id, the ego, and the superego
B) the belief that a client must form positive introjects of the therapist in order to improve therapy
C) an emphasis on early childhood experience
D) an emphasis on the interpretation of tranferences, resistances and dreams
the son into a conflict that exists between themselves.
According to research on psychotherapy outcome, the percentage of clients who benefit from therapy has been placed at

A) 90%
B) 75%
C) 50%
D) 25%
A 26 year old man states in an initial interview that he lives at home with his parents. Whenever he thinks of moving, he finds himself drinking more and more, although the alcohol doesn't have the effect it used to. His diagnosis would most likely be:

A) Alcohol Intoxication
B) Alcohol Dependence
C) Alcohol Abuse
D) Social Phobia
On the Rorsarch, "form quality" is described as

A) the examinee's response makes use of the entire inkblot
B) the examinee's response corresponds to the actual structure of the inkblot.
C) determinants are fully integrated
D) a response meaningfully integrates two or more adjacent detail areas
When treating a severely mentally retarded person, you need

A) assent from the client and consent from a legal guardian
B) consent from a court and legal guardian
C) consent from the social service system and a legal guardian
D) consent from a legal guardian only
A psychologist receives a letter from another psychologist asking for a copy of a test report done on patient several years ago. The patient is now in treatment with this psychologist and has given her consent to having the test report forwarded to her present therapist. This signed release is included in the letter. In this situation, the former psychologist should

A) write the psychologist informing her that in her opinion the test protocol is old and therefore probably shouldn't be sent on.
B) write the psychologist requesting that she have the patient re-tested if she wants to know anything current and useful
C) write the former patient suggesting she be re-tested if she wants any currently useful information
D) send the test report along with a letter indicating any objections to its possible lack of current validity
In group therapy, the group members are

A) legally obligated to keep each others' disclosures confidential
B) ethically obligated to keep each other's disclosures confidential
C) on their honor to keep each others' disclosures confidential
D) under no obligation to keep each others' disclosures confidential
In a child custody evaluation, the most important concern for a pscyhologist should be to serve

A) the court's interest
B) the best interests of the child
C) the best interest of the parents
D) as an advocate for the most competent parent
Which of the following brain structures or regions regulates circadian rhythyms?

A) reticular activating system
B) cerebral cortex
C) hippocampus
D) hypothalamus
The inability to recognize objects by touch, impaired isual-spatial orientation, and a lack of concern about one sie of the body is most suggestive of damage to the
Which of the following brain structures is most responsible for attaching emotions to memories?

A) thalamus
B) amygdala
C) hippocampus
D) cerebellum
Hypothyroidism is characterized by

A) generalized anxiety without cognitive impairment
B) generalized anxiety with cognitive impairment
C) depression without cognitive impairment
D) depression with cognitive impairment
As we age,

A) REM sleep increases and total sleep time increases
B) REM sleep decreases and total sleep time decreases
C) REM sleep decreases and total sleep time increases
D) REM sleep increases and total sleep time decreases
Alpha waves are characteristic of

A) alertness
B) relaxed wakefulness
C) stage 4 sleep
D) REM sleep
Apraxia is an ability

A) to maintain an erect posture
B) to maintain focused attention
C) to comprehend speech
D) to carry out purposeful complex movements
The "fight or flight" response is a function of the

A) parasympathetic nervous system
B) somatic nervous system
C) sympathetic nervous sytem
D) central nervous system
Lesions in this part of the brain have been found to produce hyper-emotionality and vicious behavior (rage) in laboratory animals.

A) limbic system
B) suprachiasmatic nucleus
C) hypothalamus
D) thalamus
The following is a genetic condition characterized by dementia, motor disturbances involving rapid, involuntary jerky movements, along with an initial change in affect

A) Parkinson's
B) Diabetes
C) Cushing's Disease
D) Huntington's chorea
Which of the following would be characterized by an inability to name objects and incoherent speech that is produced at a normal rate, rhythym and articulation?

A) Broca's aphasia
B) Wernicke's aphasia
C) Parkinson's disease
D) Kluver-Bucy syndrome
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are associated with

A) grand mal epilepsy
B) petit mal epilepsy
C) temporal lobe epilepsy
D) Jacksonian epilepsy
D) Jacksonian
Which of the following statements regarding long-term potentiation is most true?

A) It takes place in the cerebellum where it affects sleep.
B) It takes place in the hypothalamus where it affects sleep and arousal.
C) It takes place in the cerebral cortex where it affects learning and memory.
D) It takes place in the hippocampus where it affects learning and memory.
In addition to decoding genetic information, RNA has also been associated with

A) memory
B) language
C) deductive reasoning
D) creativity
According to recent research, which of the following is true regarding sexual relationships between female patients and male therapists?

A) Women who are sexually involved with their therapists tend to be much younger than their therapists.
B) Women who are sexually involved with their therapists are more likely to have a diagnsosis of borderline personality disorder.
C) Therapists who are sexually involved with their patients tend to be less experienced and have less prestige in their field.
D) Therapists who are sexually involved with their patients are less likely to have completed their own course of personal therapy.
Joan X, a licensed psychologist, has recently begun therapy with a new client, Biff Wonderful. Joan finds herself attracted to Biff and that she even thinks about him between sessions. As an ethical psychologist, Joan should

A) refer Biff to another therapist, and ask him out on a date
B) refer Biff to another therapist, without asking him for a date.
C) seek consultation
D) raise the issue of her own countertransference in session with Biff
Which of the following types of ethical complaints against psychologists result in the highest costs when it comes to malpractice suits?

A) breach of confidentiality
B) misdiagnosis
C) misrepresentation of credentials
D) sexual misconduct
A patient tells her therapist that she had an abortion. The therapist has strong feelings that abortions are immoral and hence immediately terminates treatment with the patient citing his feeling that couldn't continue in an objective way with her. This action would be considered

A) acceptable professionally and ethically
B) abandonment of the patient and therefore unethical
C) appropriate considering his politics
D) questionable practice but not unethical
According to APA's ethical standards, bartering is permitted

A) when an objective and fair value can be established for the goods or services to be bartered
B) when it is not clinically contraindicated and not exploitive
C) in certain communities, where bartering is a traditional mode of doing business
D) under absolutely no circumstances
An aggressive child was probably

A) spanked often and inconsistently
B) never given proper boundaries
C) spanked for specific naughty behaviors
D) encouraged to think about the end results of her behaviors
The brand name for one of the medications used for ADHD is:

A) Tegretol
B) Depakote
C) Dolophine
D) Dexedrine
According to Rutter, the risk patterns that are accurate predictors for child psychopathology are

A) small family size, parental criminality, marital discord
B) severe marital discord, low socioeconomic status
C) large family size, high socioeconomic status, parental psychopathology
D) low socioeconomic status, small family size
The Strong Interest Inventory is most valid for predicting

A) occupational success
B) occupational satisfaction
C) occupational temperament
D) occupational strength
An older brother helps his younger brother to build a fort by giving his brother verbal explanations and suggestions as they go. the researcher who would use this as an illustration of his theory is

A) Piaget
B) Patterson
C) Vgotsky
D) Erikson
What did Vgotsky stress over Piaget?

A) developmental levels of specific children
B) cognitive development of children
C) their relationship with others in the family
D) the importance of the accommodation stage
Alzheimer's is related to an under production of

A) serotonin
C) Acetylcholine
D) Glutamate
You are testing a cross-section of minority clients including New Zealanders, Hispanics, African-Americans and Asians. The New Zealander's group turns out to serve as a moderator variable. This means the test has

A) cross validation
B) shrinkage
C) differential validity
D) criterion contamination
Latane called this a social disease. It occurred when high-level employees were assessed on a combined effort. It turned out they produced less than when they were working individually. It's called:

A) social loafing
B) group think
C) social polarization
D) social faciliation
IPT believes that depression is primarily cause by

A) disturbances in early life especially related to attachment
B) biochemical factors
C) disturbances in cognitive functioning
D) faulty cognitions
When working with african-american families, Nancy Boyd-Franklin recommends:

A) an ecostructural approach
B) a multisystems approach
C) a matrilineal approach
D) both a and b
The prevalence of mental disorders in people over 65 is:

A) higher than any other age group
B) lower than any other age group
C) higher, and includes cognitive impairment
D) the same as the under 65 population
Of the following ethnic groups which group is not considered a race?

A) hispanic
B) native american
C) african american
D) asian american
J. Berry, who views acculturation as a multidimensional construct, would describe an integrated client as one who:

A) has a low retention of the minority culture
B) has high maintenance of the mainstream culture
C) rejects the mainstream culture but has a high retention of the minority culture
D) gets along with others in the workplace
A new professor is teaching her first class on feminist theory. What is she required to do?

A) present a balanced view of feminist theory vs. other theories
B) concentrate solely on feminist theory; it is a given that there are other views of psychology
C) use it as a forum for presenting her dissertation findings
D) present other theories, but explain why feminist theory is the most appropriate paradigm for women
A patient with Parkinson's disease is experiencing tremors. What transmitter is probably involved?

A) acetylcholine
B) glutamate
C) zypraxa
D) dopamine
You are a small-town psychologist in a rural area and a client comes in and states that she is depressed and is having headaches. She has babysat with your child several times over the last year. She would like you to give her biofeedback sessions. You should first:

A) complete the biofeedback treatment and not ask her to babysit in the future
B) refer her to her family physician
C) refer her to a psychologist in another town for therapy; it will be ok for you to complete the biofeedback sessions
D) refer her to a biofeedback specialist in another town
A group member has idiosyncratic credits. This refers to the idea that the member has:

A) upward mobility
B) brownie points
C) unusual behaviors
D) referent power
A primary reinforcer is the same as:

A) a conditioned reinforcer
B) the first reinforcer used
C) psuedoconditioning
D) an unconditioned reinforcer
In order to decrease job turnover, an interviewer should:

A) rely on biodata
B) rely on cognitive testing
C) hire only older people
D) rely on an interest inventory
In order to decrease job turnover, an interviewer should:

A) rely on biodata
B) rely on cognitive testing
C) hire only older people
D) rely on an interest inventory
A child has been assigned a new legal guardian. His biolgoical parents had a psychological evaluation completed and had received the results. The new legal guardian is requesting a copy of the report. What is the more correct thing to do?

A) get a signed release from the biological parents
B) provide the legal guardian with a copy of the report
C) send the report to the court mediator
D) keep the evaluation on file until the child is emancipated; then forward to him.
In the last session, your gorgeous new client complimented you on how nice you look in your red outfit. You noticed you were very hapy before this session - you even caught yourself singing "oh what a beautiful morning" while looking in the mirror to do a final visual check before seeing your client in. Ethically:

A) you need to cancel this session
B) you need to consult with a colleague
C) you need to behave more appropriately
D) you need to get out more
What is the area of the brain in which lesions cause indifference or apathy?

A) corpus callosum
B) fronal
C) parietal
D) pyramidal system
When comparing feminist therapy to a more psychodynamic approach, feminist theory

A) disallows the mother's role
B) takes factors other than a woman's view of herself into consideration
C) relies much more on the emphasis of the biological mother
D) encourages women to call men to task for the oppression of women
First degree relatives of schizophrenics are more likely to be diagnosed as

A) schizotypal
B) schizophreniform
C) schizoaffective
D) borderline personality disorders
Irvin Yalom 1985 felt the most important therapeutic factors in groups were:

A) altruism, installation of hope
B) installation of hope, catharsis, existential factors
C) cohesiveness, altruism, universality
D) inerpersonal learning, catharsis, and cohesiveness
Of the "big 5" personality dimensions one would most expect a sociopathic personality to have the dimension of:

A) extraversion
B) openness
C) conscientiousness
D) sensing
A person unwilling to get involved with other unless certain of being liked, is inhibited as a result, and is unusually reluctant to take personal risks, would most likely be diagnosed with:

A) schizoid personality disorder
B) dependent personality disorder
C) avoidant personality disorder
D) schizotypal personality disorder
Low LPC leaders would be most likely to say:

A) more beautiful paint colors in this office make us all feel better
B) flextime was a brilliant invention
C) it's time for a change around here
D) the first one to hand in this budget report wins the office lottery pool
A client of yours has signd up for the same exercise class you attend. You should:

A) ask the client if it is an issue for them
B) change your health club membership
C) make a decision depending on whether the class has two or 100 participants
D)ask the client if he can tell that if you are losing weight
A high LPC leader

A) treats his favorite worker well
B) treats his favorite worker poorly
C) treats his favorite worker like his least favorite worker
D) has an ambivalent style toward his workers
Individuals with Gen. Anxiety disorder vs. people with normal amounts of worry are characterized by:

A)excessive concerns and inability to control them
B) caffeine consumption
C) excessive concerns in a few areas
D) lack of accompanying physical symptoms
In Piaget's Concrete Operations stage the child is able to conserve due to teh development of reversibility and decentration. Other achievements of this stage are:

A) deferred imitation
B) object permanence
C) propositional thought
D) transitivity
Boys who come from divorced families:

A) have low self-esteem
B) blame themselves
C) have poorer academic performance
D) are more apt to develop identity problems
Research on teacher evaluations of children's behavior has sugeste that

A) girls are rated as more disruptive than boys by male teachers, while boy are rated as more disruptive than girls by female teachers
B) girls are rated as more disruptive than boys by female teachers while boys are rated as more disruptive than girls by male teachers
C) girls are rated more disruptive than boys by both male and female teachers
D) boys are rated more disruptive than girls by both male and female teachers
In Rosenthal's pseudopatient study, who was able to recognize that the psuedopatients were not truly psychotic

A) the doctors
B) the nurses
C) the real patients
D) no one
A group member would earn idiosyncrasy credits by

A) conforming to all group norms over a period of time
B) sacrificing him or herself for the sake of another group member
C) possessing a new visionof the group's direction
D) being a good friend of the group leader
According to Nancy Chodorow (1978) roles in society will change only when we have a system of parenting in which men and women are equally responsible for child rearing. Chodorow feels

A) the present system doesn't reflect the gendered division of labor
B) the present system teaches girls to remain attached to their mothers
C) the present system teaches boys to remain attached to their mothers
D) the present system cannot be explained through object relations theory
An example of a paradoxial directive would be:

A) telling an argumentative couple they must take turns telling the other what they appreciate about each other.
B) telling an argumentative couple that they must argue for 4 hours a day.
C) arranging flowers in a vase
D) recommending to an arguing couple that they take a second honeymoon
Eric Berne feels which of the following reflects a person's characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes?

A) life position
B) transaction
C) script
D) ego state
Hypnosis involves three factors

A) absorption, regression, dissociation
B) dissociation, absorption, suggestibility
C) suggestibility, dissociation, regression
D) regression, distortion, suggestibility
A child feels confident in reaching out to others b/c as a baby they had a secure bond with their mother. This information would be important to a psychologist with the theorectical approach of

A) cognitive-behavioral
B) object-relations
C) family systems
D) psychotherapeutic
A caucasion comes to a stage where he does not have racial views. According to Helms, which stage of identity development is this person in?

A) reintegration
B) psuedo-independence
C) immersion-emersion
D) autonomy
A self-report inventory that assesses general psychiatric symptoms on a Likert-type scale is the:

B) Rorscharch
D) SCL-90
Communication-interaction therapy espouses that communication has both a "report" function and a

A) principle of equifinality
B) command function
C) circular model of causality
D) paradoxical strategy
Beck identified a number of cognitive distortions including the tendency to focus solely on a detail that is taken out of context. He termed this:

A) selective abstraction
B) overgeneralization
C) personalization
D) dichotomous thinking
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence has a male to female ratio of about:

A) 10 to 1
B) 1 to 10
C) 5 to 1
D) 2 to 1
When random assignment of subjects to groups is not possible, researchers use:

A) experimental design
B) quasi-experimental design
C) developmental research
D) longitudinal research
When a study has two or more independent variables the research design used is:

B) ANOVA- one way
C) factorial ANOVA
You are a small town psychologist in private practice and a client has written a letter to the psychology board complaining that you have a very unprofessional staff. The board has now written you to inform you of this matter. You should:

A) discipline your staff
B) respond to the board
C) call the client and let them know that you will make the appropriate changes with your staff
D) refer the client to a psychologist in another town
Which of these studies would be considered most unethical today?

A) Milgram's
B) Bandura
C) Zimbardo
D) BF Skinner's of his own child
Item analysis is a procedure used to:

A) determine which items will be retained for the final version of the test
B) refer to the degree to which items differentiate among examinees
C) graph depictions of percentage of hostile people
D) help the IRS with an audit
Which of the following is an example of assimilation?

A) Arranging flowers in a vase
B) changing your clothes to please your spouse
C) calling the daisies and ferns arranged in a vase "posies"
D) putting a coat on in winter
The California Tarasoff Statute:

A) changed the ethics code in Canada and the United States
B) extended the duty to warn clause
C) was necessary as issues implicated by the Tarasoff case account for a majority of forensic cases
D) applies to everyone working in a public setting
You are treating a patient with both an Axis I and Axis II diagnosis. You know that the insurance company is much more likely to pay for the Axis I treatment. What should you do?

A) Bill for the Axis I as the diagnosis; state that the Axis II is provisional
B) just bill forthe Axis I; at present there is not a successful treatment modality for Axis II disorders
C) bill for both, but indicate that you are seeking reimbursement for the Axis I treatment
D) write a request to the insurance company providing a clinical rationale for treating both and bill accordingly
The Montessori method can best be described as:

A) didactic group teaching
B) emphasis on cooperative activities
C) hands on learning
D) emphasizing a way to motivate children
A psychologist compliments several of his co-workers on their clothing. One of his female co-workers indicates that she is not comfortable with these types of comments and asks him to stop. He complies with her request. Is his behavior?

A) unacceptable
B) unethical
C) sexual harrassment
D) acceptable
A quality assurance review would likely focus on all of the following except

A) treatment effectiveness
B) access to treatment
C) cost of treatment
D) patient satisfaction
Baumrind in 1964 indicated that whose study was unethical?

A) Bandura's
B) Zimbardo's
C) Milgram's
D) Harlow's
Which of the following is related to minority influence?

A) ambiguity
B) idiosyncratic credits
C) conformity
D) psychological reactance
Which of the client's rights are protected in a court of law?

A) a second opinion
B) Tarasoff
C) Right of confidentiality
D) right to receive medication
Which of these studies would be considered most unethical today?

A) Milgram's
B) Bandura
C) Zimbardo
D) BF Skinner's study of his own child
You have a client who does not want their records released under any circumstances. The attorney has subpoened you. Your best course of action is to:

A) respond, but don't take the records
B) take the records, but don't turn them over
C) ignore the entire matter
D) destroy the records
A 16 year old has just received her driver's license and drives the new car her parents have given her as fast as possible in all situations. This is an example of:

A) Imaginery audience
B) personal fable
C) acceleration
D) decentration
You have completed a psychological assessment on a child whose parents are divorced. They have joint custody. The child's mother doesn't want the father's girlfriend present for the debriefing session although the father does want her there. What do you do? (The mother paid for testing)

A) have only the custodial parents present
B) have only the mother present
C) have two sessions, one with the mother, one with the father and his girlfriend
D) send everyone a copy of the report and only meet if one of the parents needs further clarification
What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?

A) a stated professional relationship
B) significant neglect
C) severe damage
D) sufficient harm
A woman comes to you who has been put on morphine due to her pain. She is an ex-alcoholic in recovery and does not want to become addicted to the morphine. She asks your assistance in lowering the dosage. You should:

A) work with her psychiatrist to lower the dose, but explain that synthetic morphine isn't addicting
B) Tell her she needs to speak directly to her psychiatrist
C) suggest she give you the extra morphine and you will dispose of it properly
D) support her choice to not get addicted and work with her psychiatrist
In Freudian or psychoanalysis, the emotional release that occurs when the patient becomes fully aware of previously repressed impulses and feelings, and occurs as a result of repeated interpretations throughout therapy is known as:

A) abreaction
B) transference
C) confrontation
D) countertransference
Anaclitic depression is most often found in:

A) elderly early dementia patients
B) newly divorced women
C) infants
D) students preparing for a major exam