Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/144

Click to flip

144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Research can be categorized as:

a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. both a. and b.
c. Research is the systematic study and investigation of a phenomenon in order to reveal, analyze, and establish facts, principles, and theories. The various methods of research can be categorized as qualitative or quantitative.
True or False. Qualitative research is conducted to obtain a holistic description of the naturalistic, contextual approach, emphasizes understanding and interpretation, and is primarily inductive in nature. The investigator's perspective is an important element of the research process.
True. Qualitative Research is conducted to obtain *holistic* (relating to or concerned with wholes or with complete systems rather than with the analysis of, treatment of, or dissection into parts) description of the quality of relationships, actions, situations, or other phenomena. It uses a *naturalistic approach* whereby (subject(s) is/are observed without interruption under normal or natural circumstances), *contextual approach*, emphasizes understanding and interpretation, and is primarily *inductive* (ideas are processed from the specific to the general in nature).
True or False. Quantitative research is conducted to obtain numerical data on variables. It makes use of empirical methods and statistical procedures, emphasizes prediction, generalizability, and causality, and is primarily deductive.
True. Quantitative Research is conducted to obtain numerical data on variables. It makes use of *empirical* (capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experiment) methods and statistical procedures, emphasizes prediction, generalizability, and *causality*, and is primarily *deductive* (ideas are processed from the general to the specific).
Quantitative research is further categorized as nonexperimental or _____.
experimental
Nonexperimental research is conducted to:

a. to test hypotheses
b. collect data on variables rather than to test hypotheses
c. is emphasized on the EPPP
b. nonexperimental (descriptive) research is conducted to collect data on variables rather than to test hypotheses about the relationship between them. Correlational research, archival research, case studies, and surveys are ordinarily nonexperimental.
Experimental research is conducted to:

a. to test hypotheses
b. collect data on variables rather than to test hypotheses
c. is emphasized on the EPPP
d. both a. and c.
d. Experimental research is conducted to test hypotheses about the effects of one or more independent variables on one or more dependent variables. Experimental research is emphasized on the psychology licensing exam.
Name the steps to Planning and Conducting Experimental Research using the acronmym:

Dumb
Calculations
Stop-up
Cranial
Arterial
Reasoning
1.Developing An Idea Into A Testable Hypothesis
2.Choosing An Appropriate Research Design
3.Selecting A Sample
4.Conducting The Study
5.Analyzing The Obtained Data
6.Reporting The Results
a _____ is any characteristic, behavior, event, or other phenomenon that is capable of varying or existing in at least two different states, conditions, or levels (e.g., gender).
variable
A _____ is a characteristic that is restricted to a single state or condition.
Constant; For example, gender may be treated as a constant if only male subjects are used in the study.
Researchers normally distinguish between two types of variables: A person's status on the _____ variable is assumed to affect his/her status on the ______ variable.
independent; dependent
If a psychologist conducts a research study to test the hypothesis that children who watch violent films are more aggressive than children who do not, the study's independent variable is ______.
To answer this question correctly you would need to ask yourself, "What are the effects of (INDEPENDENT VARIABLE) on (DEPENDENT VARIABLE)?" The answer would be: What are the effects of (films: violent vs. nonviolent) on aggressiveness.
To assess the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable, the independent variable must have at least

a. one level
b. two levels
c. three levels
b. two levels; The IV(s) affect(s) or alter(s) status of the dependent variable (DV); it is manipulated by the experimenter; Each IV must have at least two levels, which provides a point for comparison. Comparisons on the DV are made across different levels of the IV. When the psychologist is using only one variable as the IV, then the effects of that IV may be compared by using a self-control procedure whereby the effects of no treatment on that variable may serve as the second variable.
The dependent variable is:

a. manipulated
b. measured
c. left alone
d. not necessary
Dependent Variable (DV, outcome, “Y”) – status on this variable seems to “depend on” the status of another variable (the IV). It is considered the outcome of the study and is measured by pretests and posttests. This variable is not manipulated, but measured only.
To identify the IV(s) and DV(s) in a study, translate the information into a question:

What is the effect of _____ on _____ ?
Independent Variable; Dependent Variable
When using manipulated independent variables, the psychologist will be able to determine which levels of the IVs will be administered to subjects. However, in some studies, the psychologist cannot control the independent variables. When this happens, the IVs are considered ______ variables.

a. constant
b. organismic
c. dependent
b. organismic; The use of organismic (a complex structure of interdependent and subordinate elements whose relations and properties are largely determined by their function in the whole) variables also limits the study in that the psychologist will not be able to determine if any observed relationships are causal in nature.
The IV and DV must be defined in terms of the method or process that will be used to identify or measure them. Once this is done, the variables are said to be:

a. descriptively analyzed
b. operationally defined
c. appropriate for the study
b. operationally defined; Each variable must be defined and measured(e.g., score on a measure such as the WAIS or use of observation).
An important decision when using _____ to identify or measure a behavior is how to record that behavior.

a. observation
b. quasi experimental research
c. experimental research
a. Whenever observation is used to identify or measure behavior, an important decision is how to record or measure that behavior.
True or False. When using observational methods to obtain measures on the DV, there are four main ways to measure variables: content analysis, behavioral sampling, situational sampling, sequential analysis.
True.Content Analysis – organizing the data into categories; Behavioral Sampling – systematic method for sampling and recording the frequency or duration of the behavior and/or rating the behavior in terms of its qualitative characteristics; Situational Sampling – alternative to behavioral sampling, used when the goal of the study is to observe a behavior in a number of settings, helps increase generalizability of the study’s findings; Sequential Analysis – entails coding of behavioral sequences rather than isolated behavioral events and is used to study complex social behaviors.
_____ analysis involves recording a subject's verbalizations when she has been instructed to "think aloud" while solving a complex cognitive problem.
Protocol Analysis – subject is asked to think aloud while solving a problem. The subject’s verbalizations are recorded and coded in term of relevant categories. Protocol = (record of a document or transaction).
_____ recording is particularly useful when the target behavior has no clear beginning or end.
Interval recording – observing a behavior for a period of time that has been divided into equal intervals (e.g., a 30-minute period that has been divided into 15-second intervals) and recording whether or not the behavior occurs during each interval. Use for studying complex interactions and behaviors that have no clear beginning or end such as laughing, talking, or playing.
_____ sampling is an effective technique when the behavior occurs infrequently or leaves a permanent record.
Event Sampling (recording) – observing a behavior each time that it occurs. This technique is good for studying behaviors that occur infrequently, that have a long duration, or that leave a permanent record or other product (e.g., a completed worksheet or test).
Experimental research is categorized as either true experimental or quasi-experimental. The primary feature that distinguishes true experimental research from quasi-experimental research is that, in the former, the experimenter can randomly _____ subjects to different treatment groups:

a. assign
b. rotate
a. assigne subjects; True Experimental Research provides the amount of control necessary to conclude that the observed variability in the dependent variable is actually caused by variability in a independent variable. In order for the study to be “true experimental research”, the psychologist must be able to:
·Control the experimental
·Determine which levels of the IV to include
·Randomly assign subjects to different treatment groups (i.e., to different levels of the IV)
Radomization of subjects to different treatment groups allows the experimenter to be more certain that subjects in different groups are initially similar and, consequently, that any observed differences between then on the _____ varible(s) were caused by the _____ variable(s):

a. dependent; independent
b. independent; dependent
c. constant; organismic
a. dependent; independent

Random Assignment (randomization) helps ensure that any observed differences between groups on the dependent variable are actually due to the effects of the IV.
True or False. When using Quasi-experimental Research, an experimenter can sometimes control the assignment of subjects to treatment groups.
False. Quasi-experimental Research – experimenter cannot control the assignment of subjects to treatment groups; must use intact or (pre-existing) groups or a single treatment group.
When a researcher must use intact or (pre-existing) groups or a single treatment group, s/he is doing:

a. experimental research
b. quasi-experimental research
b. Quasi-experimental Research – experimenter cannot control the assignment of subjects to treatment groups; must use intact or (pre-existing) groups or a single treatment group.
With regard to standard sampling techniques, when using this method, every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, and the selection of one member from the population has no effect on the selection of another member:

a. cluster sampling
b. stratified random sampling
c. simple random sampling
b. Simple Random Sampling
-Each member of population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
-Selection of one member from the population has no effect on the selection of another member
With regard to standard sampling techniques, the experiementor might want to use this method when the population of interest varies in terms of specific "strata" (characteristics) that are relevant to the research hypothesis:

a. cluster sampling
b. stratified random sampling
c. simple random sampling
b. Stratified Random Sampling
-Use when the population varies in terms of “strata” (characteristics) that are relevant to study
-Divide the population into the appropriate strata (e.g., SES, race, age, etc.) and randomly select subjects from each stratum.
With regard to standard sampling techniques, the experimenter might want to use this method when it is not possible to identify or obtain access to the entire population of interest:

a. cluster sampling
b. stratified random sampling
c. simple random sampling
a. Cluster Sampling
-Select units (clusters) of individuals that are relevant to study
-Include all individual in those units/clusters or randomly select individuals from units/cluster (Multistage Cluster Sampling) when it is not possible to identify or obtain access to the entire population of interest.
Exlain the difference bewteen random assignment and random selection.
Both are important in research but for different reasons.

Random Assignment – allows investigator to be more certain that an observed effect on the DV was actually caused by the IV.

Random Selection – enables the investigator to generalize his/her findings from the sample to the population.

It is random assignment that distinguishes true experimental research from quasi-experimental research.
An educational psychologist believes that children are better spellers if they are provided with "spaced" practice rather than "massed" practice whiel they are learning new words. Identify the IV and DV:

IV(s):
DV(s):
IV(s): types of practic
DV(s): spelling ability
Dr. Mean wants to test the hypothesis that a mastery learning technique is more effective than the traditional instructional approach for teaching college algebra but that its effectiveness is a function of a student's need for achievement and math aptitude.

IV(s):
DV(s):
IV(s):instuctional method, need for achievement, math aptitude
DV(s): algebra achievement
Dr. Freud wants to compare the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy, client-centered therapy, and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for reducing test anxiety in high- and low-achieving college students as measured by a physiological measure of anxiety and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Identify the IV and DV:

IV(s):
DV(s):
IV(s): type of therapy, achievement level
DV(s): physiological measure of anxiety, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale
A school principal suspects that a teacher's expectations about a student's academic performance will have a "self-fulfilling prophecy" effect on the student's own expectations and actual academic achievement but that the magnitide of the effect will depend on the student's level of self-esteem. Identify the IV and DV:

IV(s):
DV(s):
IV(s): teacher expectations, student self-esteem
DV(s): student expectations, student achievement
A researcher asks a sample of male and female mental health professionals to describe a "healthy male adult" and a "healthy female adult." Based on his review of the literature, he expects that the adjectives used by both male and female professionals to describe a healthy male will be more positive than the adjectives used to describe a healthy female. Identify the IV and DV:

IV(s):
DV(s):
IV(s):gender of mental health professionals, gender of healthy adult
DV(s): descriptive adjectives of healthy adult
To investigate the effects of watching violent movies on aggressive behavior, Dr. Hatchet has male and female children who have been identified as either very aggressive, moderately aggressive, mildly aggressive, or nonaggressive watch either a violent or neutral film. Following the film, he observes each child during a 60-minute free play period and counts the number of agressive acts the child exhibits:
Identify the IV and DV:

IV(s):
DV(s):
IV(s):initial aggressiveness, gender, type of film
DV(s): number of agressive acts
An investigator compares the performance of a single group of subjects before and after exposure to an intervention. This study is a (true/quasi-) experimental study.
quasi experimental study because experimenter could not control the assignment of subjects to treatment groups because s/he had to use an intact or (pre-existing) groups or a single treatment group.
Random (selection/assignment) of subjects is critical for ensuring the generalizability of research results.
selection;

Random Assignment Vs. Random Selection
Random Assignment – allows investigator to be more certain that an observed effect on the DV was actually caused by the IV.
Random Selection – enables the investigator to generalize his/her findings from the sample to the population.
When a study's independent variable is an organismic variable, the study is considered to be a (true/quasi-) experimental study.
quasi-experimental
When using protocol analysis, an investigator is interested in:

a. infrequent behaviors
b. verbal reports
c. historical events
b. verbal reports; Protocol Analysis – subject is asked to think aloud while solving a problem. The subject’s verbalizations are recorded and coded in term of relevant categories.

a. INCORRECT - Event Sampling is good for studying behaviors that occur infrequently, that have a long duration, or that leave a permanent record or other product (e.g., a completed worksheet or test).
A psychologist designs a study to assess prosocial behaviors (smiling, making eye contact, etc.) in infants while interacting with caregivers. the best sampling (recording) technique for these behaviors would be:

a. interval
b. cluster
c. event
a. Interval recording – observing a behavior for a period of time that has been divided into equal intervals (e.g., a 30-minute period that has been divided into 15-second intervals) and recording whether or not the behavior occurs during each interval. Use for studying complex interactions and behaviors that have no clear beginning or end such as laughing, talking, or playing.

b. no such thing
c. INCORRECT - Event Sampling (recording) – observing a behavior each time that it occurs. This technique is good for studying behaviors that occur infrequently, that have a long duration, or that leave a permanent record or other product (e.g., a completed worksheet or test).
The "hallmark" of true (versus quasi-) experimental research is:

a. the ability to randomly select subjects from the population
b. the ability to randomly assign subjects to treatment groups
c. the ability to test hypotheses about the relationship bewteen variables.
b.
To obtain a sample of elementary school children for your research study, you randomly select several schools from the population of schools and then randomly choose students from the schools that you have selected. This is an example of:

a. quota sampling
b. stratified random sampling
c. cluster sampling
c. cluster sampling; Cluster Sampling
-Select units (clusters) of individuals that are relevant to study
-Include all individual in those units/clusters or randomly select individuals from units/cluster (Multistage Cluster Sampling) when it is not possible to identify or obtain access to the entire population of interest.
Which of the following would be most useful for studying behaviors that leave a permanent record:

a. time sampling
b. situation sampling
c. event recording
c. event recording; Event Sampling (recording) – observing a behavior each time that it occurs. This technique is good for studying behaviors that occur infrequently, that have a long duration, or that leave a permanent record or other product (e.g., a completed worksheet or test).
When conducting an experimental research study, an experimenter wants a design that will maximize variability in the dependent variable that is due to the _____, control variability due to _____, and minimize variability due to _____.
independent variable, extraneous variables (systematic error), random error
Experimental variability, or variability in the dependent variable that is due to the _____ variable, is maximized when groups are made as different as possible with respect to that variable, while variability due to _____ error is minimized by ensuring that random fluctuations in subjects, conditions, and measuring instruments are eliminated or equalized among all treatment groups.
independent, random

True experimental research helps an investigator minimize the effects of random (unpredictable) fluctuations in subjects, conditions, and measuring instruments.

Tip! It is important to remember to pick a design that minimizes the effects of both systematic error (error due to extraneous variables) and random error.
A number of techniques are used to control the effects of extraneous variables, which are irrelevant to the research hypothesis but correlate with the _____ variable.
dependent

Extraneous (Confounding) Variable – source of systematic error; variable that is irrelevant to the purpose of the research study, confounds its results because it has a systematic effect (correlates with) the DV.
Randomization, or the random _____ of subject to different levels of the independent variable, is considered the most powerful method of control because it helps ensure that groups are initially _____ with regard to all known and unknown extraneous variables.
assignment; equivalent

Random Assignment of Subjects to Treatment Groups (Randomization)
·Equalizes the effects of extraneous variables
·Most “powerful” method of experimental control
·Primary characteristic of “true experimental research”
Matching is useful for controlling an extraneous variable when the number of subjects is too _____ to guarantee that random assignment will equalize the groups in terms of an extraneous variable.
small; Matching Subjects on the Extraneous Variable (Matching)
·Match subjects in terms of their status on that variable
·Randomly assign match subjects to one of the treatment groups
·Useful when = sample size is too small to guarantee that random assignment will equalize the groups with regard to the effects of the extraneous variable
Blocking is similar to matching except that subjects are not individually matched but are _____ in terms of their status on the extraneous variable, and subjects within each _____ are randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups.
blocked (grouped); block

Building the Extraneous Variable into the Study (Blocking)
·Include extraneous variable as IV so that its effects on the DV may be statistically analyzed
·Subjects are grouped (blocked) on the basis of their status on the extraneous variable
·Subjects are then randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups
The ANCOVA or other statistical technique can be used to statistically _____ the effects of an extraneous variable.
remove, Statistical Control of the Extraneous Variable - ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) or other statistical technique to remove variability (equalizing all subjects with regard to their status on that variable) in the DV.
When a study has _____ validity, the experimenter can conclude that observations in the dependent variable were caused by variations in the independent variable rather than by other factors:

a. internal
b. external
c. face
a. internal; a study has internal validity when it allows an investigator to determine if there is a causal relationship between independent and dependent variables.
Internal validity is threatened when the investigator cannot:

a. Control the effects of the IV
b. Control the effects of extraneous variables
c. Minimize the effects of random error
d. all of the above
d.
_____ refers to an external event that is irrelevant to the research hypothesis but that occurs duing the course of a study and affects the subjects' status on the dependent variable:

a. history
b. maturation
a. history; History – external event systematically affects the status of subjects on the DV. History = a significant event that effects people.
_____ refers to changes that occur within subjects during the course of a study as the result of the passage of time and that have a systematic effect on the DV:

a. history
b. maturation
b. maturation; Maturation – any biological or psychological change that occurs within subjects during the course of a study as a function of time and is not relevant to the research hypothesis (e.g., fatigue, boredom, hunger, physical growth, intellectual growth). Maturation = the emergence of personal and behavioral characteristics through growth processes.
Statistical _____ is the tendency for very high and low scores to move toward the mean on retesting.
regression; Statistical Regression – tendency of extreme scores on a measure to “regress” or move toward the mean when the measure is readministered to the same group of people. Statistical regression threatens a study’s internal validity whenever subjects have been selected because of their extreme status on the dependent variable.
Statistical regression threatens a study's internal validity whenever subjects are selected to participate in the study because of their extreme scores on the _____ variable measure
dependent
_____ is a problem when subjects in different treatment groups are not similar in terms of important characteristics at the onset of the study.
selection; Selection – method used to assign subjects results in systematic differences between the groups at the beginning of the study (e.g., forced to use intact groups).
_____ limits the study's internal validity when subjects who drop out of the study differ in some important way from subjects who remain in the study for its duration.
attrition
_____ can interact with history and threaten a study's internal validity if one group of subjects is exposed to an external condition that does not affect subjects in other groups.
selection; Interactions With Selection – there would be an interaction between selection and history, for example, when one group of subjects is unintentionally exposed to an external event that does not affect subject in other groups.
To control for maturation, the experimenter could:

a. Include more than one group and randomly assign subjects to groups
b. Use single-group time-series design
c. Include more than one group
d. both a. and b.
d. both a. and b.; Maturation – any biological or psychological change that occurs within subjects during the course of a study as a function of time and is not relevant to the research hypothesis (e.g., fatigue, boredom, hunger, physical growth, intellectual growth). Maturation = the emergence of personal and behavioral characteristics through growth processes.

Control:
·Include more than one group and randomly assign subjects to groups
·Use single-group time-series design
To control for history, the experimenter would:

a. Design measure in a way that minimizes memory and practice effects
b. Include more than one group
c. Randomly assign subjects to groups
d. both b. and c.
History – external event systematically affects the status of subjects on the DV. History = a significant event that effects people.

Control:
·Include more than one group – history is more problematic when study includes only one group and the event occurs at the same time that the independent variable is applied.
·Randomly assign subjects to groups
To control for the effects of testing, the experimenter would:

a. Administer the DV measure only once
b. Design measure in a way that minimizes memory and practice effects
c. Include at least two groups in study
d. all of the above
d. all of the above

Testing – exposure to a test might later the subjects’ performance on subsequent tests (tests that are readministered)

Control:
·Administer the DV measure only once
·Design measure in a way that minimizes memory and practice effects
·Include at least two groups in study
To control for the effects of instrumentation, the experimenter could:

a. Include more than one group in study
b. use the same measuring devices and procedures with all subjects
c. both a. and b.
c. both a. and b.

Instrumentation – changes in the accuracy or sensitivity of measuring devices or procedures. (e.g., rater’s accuracy improves over time)

Control:
·Include more than one group in study
·Ensure that all groups are subject to the same instrumentation effects by using the same measuring devices and procedures with all subjects
To control for statistical regression, you could:

a. include only extreme scores
b. NOT include extreme scores
c. include another group that consists of subjects who are similarly extreme.
d. Either b. or c.
d. Either b. or c.

Statistical Regression – tendency of extreme scores on a measure to “regress” or move toward the mean when the measure is readministered to the same group of people. Statistical regression threatens a study’s internal validity whenever subjects have been selected because of their extreme status on the dependent variable.

Control:
·NOT including only extreme scorers in the study
·Include more than one group and ensure that all groups consist of subjects who are similarly extreme.
To control from selection affects, you could:

a. Randomly assigning subjects to groups
b. Administering pretest to subjects to determine if the groups differ initially with regard to the DV
c. either a. or b.
c. either a. or b.

Selection – method used to assign subjects results in systematic differences between the groups at the beginning of the study (e.g., forced to use intact groups). Use of the term selection here is somewhat misleading as we are really talking about “assignment”.

Control:
·Randomly assigning subjects to groups, or when not possible,
·Administering pretest to subjects to determine if the groups differ initially with regard to the DV
True or false. Pretest can help with attrition rates as they can determine if dropouts and non-dropouts differ with regard to their initial status on the DV.
Attrition (Mortality) – subjects who drop out of one group differ in an important way from subjects who drop out of other groups.

Control:
· Pretest can help determine if dropouts and non-dropouts differ with regard to their initial status on the DV.
When blocking is used to control an extraneous variable, the extraneous variable is treated as an independent variable, and its effects on the _____ variable are statistically analyzed.
dependent; blocking is a method used to control an extraneous variable when an investigator wants to statistically analyze its main and interaction effects on the DV. Involves blocking (grouping)subjects with regard to their status on the extraneous variable and then randomly assigning subjects in each block to one of the treatment groups.
In a research study, variability in the dependent variable that is attributable to the _____ variable is referred to as "experimental variability."
independent variable
External validity refers to the _____ of the results of a research study.
generalizability
The random selection of subjects for a research study is most useful for maximizing a study's _____ validity, while random assignment of subjects to treatment groups is most important for ensuring that the study has adequate _____ validity.
external; internal
When using the analysis of covariance, the "covariate":

a. is treated as an independent variable
b. is an extraneous variable
c. is the dependent variable
b. is an extraneous variable;
Statistical Control of the Extraneous Variable

ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) or other statistical technique to remove variability (equalizing all subjects with regard to their status on that variable) in the DV.
Extraneous variables:

a. correlate with the DV
b. correlate with the IV
c. correlate with the DV and the IV
a. correlate with the DV
Which of the following is an example of demand characteristics:

a. an experimenter double-checks his data whenever it doesn't conform to the research hypothesis
b. subjects alter their behaviors in ways that help them avoid negative evaluations by the experiment
c. subtle cues in the environment communicate to subjects what behaviors are expected of them
c. demand characteristics are cues in the experimental situation that inform research participants of how they are expected to behave during the course of the study. Demand characteristics can threaten a study's internal and external validity.
Counterbalancing is used to control:

a. order effects
b. statistical regression
c. demand characteristics
a. order effects;

Multiple Treatment Interference (Order Effects, Carryover Effects) – when a study involves exposing each subject to two or more levels of an independent variable (i.e., when the study utilizes within-subjects design) the effects of one level of the independent variable can be affected by previous exposure to another level.

Control:
·Counterbalanced design – different subjects (or groups of subjects) receive the levels of the IV in a different order (e.g., Latin Square Design).
A psychologist evaluates the effects of a 15-month training program on the conservation skills of preoperational children by administering a measure of conservation to the same group of children before and at the end of the training. The psychologist finds that a significantly greater number of children conserve after the program than before. The biggest threat to this study's internal validity is:

a. maturation
b. history
c. selection
a. Maturation reflects changes that occur within subjects as the result of the passage of time.
Dr. Dogood includes only students who have very low GPAs in her study that is designed to test the hypothesis that a motivational training course will improve academic achievement. The biggest threat to this study's internal validity is:

a. reactivity
b. statistical regression
c. maturation
b. Statistical Regression – tendency of extreme scores on a measure o “regress” or move toward the mean when the measure is readministered to the same group of people. Statistical regression threatens a study’s internal validity whenever subjects have been selected because of their extreme status on the dependent variable.

Control:
·NOT including only extreme scorers in the study
·Include more than one group and ensure that all groups consist of subjects who are similarly extreme.
An experimenter compares the effects of three different diets on weight loss by assessing overweight subjects either to Diet A, Diet B, or Diet C and then determining each subject's weight one week, six weeks, and three months after beginning the diet. This study is an example of which type of research design:

a. between groups
b. within subjects
c. mixed
c. mixed designs are research designs in which both between-groups and within-subjects comparisons can be made.
When a study has both main and interaction effects:

a. the main effects take precedence over the interaction effects
b. the main effects should be interpreted in light of the interaction effects
c. the main and interaction effects should be interpreted seperately
b.
Use of an ABAB design involves:

a. applying two different treatments to subjects at two different times
b. applying a single treatment to subjects at two different times
c. applying a single treatment to two different behaviors
b.
The single-subject AB design is most similar to which of the following group designs:

a. counterbalanced
b. one-group time-series
c. factorial
b.
A factorial design includes two or more _____.
independent variables; the name given to any research design that includes two or more "factors" (IVs). Factorial designs permit analysis of main and interaction effects. (An interaction occurs when the impact of one IV differs at different levels of another variable.)
When using a multiple baseline design, a treatment is _____ applied to the different baselines.
sequentially; A single-subject design that involves sequentially applyling a treatment to different "baselines" (e.g., to different behaviors, settings, or subjects). Useful when a reversal design would be impracticle or unethical.
Single-subject research designs always include at least one _____ (A) phase and at least one _____ (B) phase.
baseline (no treatment); treatment
An experimenter conducts a study to investigate the effects of task complexity and motivation on performance and obtains the following mean scores on a measure of task performance:

H Motivation L Motivation

Simple Task 50 35

Complex Task 10 25

Based on this data (and assuming that there are the same number of subjects in each group), you can tentatively conclude that there is:

a. a main effect of task complexity
b. a main effect of task complexity and a main effect of motivation
c. a main effect of task complexity and an interaction
c.
WAIS Scores are composed on a:

a. nominal scale
b. ordinal scale
c. interval scale
d. ratio scale
c.
Minutes to complete a task, consist of a:

a. nominal scale
b. ordinal scale
c. interval scale
d. ratio scale
d. ratio scale
Number of siblings consists of a:

a. nominal scale
b. ordinal scale
c. interval scale
d. ratio scale
d.
Ranking of peers in terms of popularity would occur on which of the following scales:

a. nominal scale
b. ordinal scale
c. interval scale
d. ratio scale
b.
College level (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) would occur on which of the following scale:

a. nominal scale
b. ordinal scale
c. interval scale
d. ratio scale
b.
Althletes' numbers would occur on which of the following scales:

a. nominal scale
b. ordinal scale
c. interval scale
d. ratio scale
a.
The assumption of equal intervals between successive points on a measurement scale is characteristic of:

a. ordinal, interval, and ratio scales
b. interval and ratio scales
c. ratio scales only
b.
When using a(n) _____ scale of measurement, a score of zero indicates that the person has none of the characteristics being measured:

a. ordinal, interval, or ratio
b. interval or ratio
c. ratio
c.
When a study's dependent variable is measured on a(n) _____ scale, a researcher does not have scale values or scores to analyze but can only compare frequencies.
nominal
If you can conclude, on the basis of their test scores, that Keisha has twice as much of a characteristic as Kali, the test scores represent a(n) _____ scale of measurement.
ratio
Which of the following describes the relationship between the variance and the standard deviation:

a. the variance is twice the size of the standard deviation.
b. the variance is the square root of the standard deviation
c. the variance is the square of the standard deviation
c.
A teacher administers a test of reading achievement to a 4th grade class. An inspection of the distribution of scores indicates that there are very few high scores but many low scores. If the teacher is most interested in impressing the administration with how well her students are doing, she will report which of the following:

a. mean
b. median
c. mode
a.mean. The outcome for the teacher's class' scores indicates a positively skewed distribution (most of the scores are on the low end). In positively skewed distributions, the mean is greater than the median, which, in turn, is greater than the mode.

Pos skew = mo, md, m, (from lowest to highest)

Neg skew = m, md, mo (from lowest to highest)
The test scores of a group of 35 students is fairly evenly distributed throughout the range of possible scores. The distribution is best described as:

a. mesokurtic
b. platykurtic
c. leptokurtic
b. platykurtic refers to a "flatter" distribution.

"Kurtosis" refers to the relative peakedness (height or flatness) of a distribution: when a distribution is more "peaked" than the normal distribution, it is referred to as "leptokurtic"; when a distribution is flatter, it is called "platykurtic" and a normal curve is "mesokurtic".
If the dependent variable in a research study is college major, the _____ is the appropriate measure of central tendency.
mode
In a normal distribution, approximately ____ % of observations fall between the scores that are plus and minus one standard deviation from the mean.
68
In a _____ skewed distribution, the median is greater (has a higher value) than the mean.
negatively
In the population, an IQ test has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 12, and scores on the test are normally distributed. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that about _____& of people have scores between 76 and 124.
95%
In a normal distribution, _____ % of scores fall below the mean and about _____ % of scores fall below the score that is one standard deviation above the mean.
50; 84
A reading test is to be used to select students whose scores are in the bottom 16% in order to provide them with appropriate remedial instruction. If scores are normally distributed, and the distribution's mean is 100 and its standard deviation is 10, the cutoff score should be set at _____.
90 (one standard deviation below the mean)
True or False. The probability of incorrectly retaining the null hypothesis is equal to alpha.
False. This describes beta (type II error) in which a false null hypothesis is retained.
True or False. Power refers to the probability of correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis.
True.
The standard error of the mean is the _____ of the sampling distribution of the mean.
standard deviation
In the population, a test has a mean of 150 and standard deviation of 25. If the research study in which the test will serve as the DV measure includes 100 subjects, the standard error of the mean is equal to _____.
2.5
When alpha is increased from .01 to .05, the probability of making a Type II error _____ and power _____.
decreases; increases
Based on the results of his study, a researcher concludes that a workshop did not improve participants' test performance when, in fact, the workshop did improve performance but the improvement was not detected due to the unreliability of the dependent variable measure. The researcher has made a Type _____ error.
II
Accoring to the Central Limit Theorem, the shape of the sampling distribution of means:

a. is normal only when the population distribution is normal
b. approaches normal as the number of samples increases regardless of the shape of the population distribution
c. approaches normal as the size of the sample increases regardless of the shape of the population distribution
c.
A researcher has analyzed the difference between mean posttest scores of experimental and control group subjects. The researcher will be MOST confident that his decision to reject the null hypothesis is correct if the results of his study are significant at:

a. the .10 level
b. the .05 level
c. the .01 level
c.
Less power means:

a. an increased chance of retaining a false null hypothesis
b. a decreased chance of rejecting a true null hypothesis
c. an increased chance of achieving statistical significance
a.
The mean of a theoretical sampling distribution of the mean is equal to:

a. zero
b. the sample mean
c. the population mean
c.
A researcher conducts a study to test the hypothesis that level of conflict (high, moderate, or low) and participation in a communication skills workshop (yes or no) predicts a couple's relationship status one year later (together or seperated). This study has:

a. one IV and two nominal DVs
b. two IVs and one ratio DV
c. two IVs and one nominal DV
c.
The researcher in the above study would use which of the following tests to analyze the data she has collected:

a. Student's t-test
b. chi-square test
c. analysis of variance
b.
Dr. V. T. Min is interested in comparing the reaction time (in seconds) of two groups of men. One group has been placed on a nutritional supplement for six months: the other group has received no supplement. This study has:

a. one IV and one ratio DV
b. one IV and one nominal DV
c. one variable
a.
The appropriate statistical test for the data Dr. Min has collected is:

a. multiple-sample chi-square test
b. Mann-Whitney U Test
c. t-test for independent samples
c.
An experimenter wants to assess the effectiveness of a training course for improving SAT scores by comparing the pretest and posttest scores of a group of high school students. To analyze the data obtained in this study, the expermenter should use which statistical test:

a. two-way ANOVA
b. t-test for single samples
c. t-test for related samples
c. t-test for related samples
You have collected scores on a measure of cognitive functioning from patients who have and have not received a diagnosis of schizophrenia and whose families have been classified as either high, moderate, or low in "expressed emotion." To analyze the data you have collected, you will use the:

a. factorial ANOVA
b. one-way ANOVA
c. multiple-sample chi-square test
a. factorial ANOVA
The Wicoxon test can be considered a "nonparametric alternative" to the t-test for _____ .
correlated (related) samples
A researcher will use trend analysis when her study's _____ is quantitative.
independent variable
A psychologist uses a t-test to analyze the data he has obtained from a single-group pretest-posttest design that included 29 subjects. The degrees of freedom are _____.
28 - 1 = 27
The numerator of the F-ratio is a measure of variability due to _____ and the denominator is a measure of variability due to _____ .
treatemnt and error; error
Parametric and nonparametric tests share in common which of the following assumptions:

a. random assignment of samples to groups
b. random selection of the sample from the population
c. a normally-shaped distribution of DV scores in the population.
b. random selection of the sample from the population
Dr. Frugal decides to use the MANOVA rather than separate ANOVAs to analyze the data he has collected. Most likely, this is because Dr. Frugal wants to:

a. statistically remove the effects of systematic error
b. statistically analyze both main and interaction effects
c. increase statistical power
c. increase statistical power
A chi-square test would not be the appropriate statistical test in which of the following situations:

a. the population distribution is non-normal
b. subjects can appear in more than one category
c. a quasi-experimental design has been used
b. subjects can appear in more than one category
An experimenter would decide to use a one-way ANOVA instead of seperate t-tests to analyze the data she has collected in a study involving one IV with four levels because:

a. she wants to reduce the Type I error rate.
b. she wants to control systematic error
c. her study includes more than one DV
a. she wants to reduce the Type I error rate.
A _____ (positive/negative) correlation indicates that people scoring low on one variable tend to obtain high scores on another vaiable.
negative
When both variables are reported in terms of ranks, the appropriate correlation coefficient is the _____.
Spearman rho
Which of the following would be the best correlation coefficient when x is cigarette use (smoker vs. non-smoker) and Y is the number of car accidents:

a. Spearman rho
b. point biserial
c. contingency
b. point biserial
The "least squares criterion" is used to:

a. determine the optimal location for the "line of best fit"
b. statistically "partial out" the effects of a third variable
c. identify the criterion group that an examinee most closely resembles.
a. determine the optimal location for the "line of best fit"
To measure the degree of association between two variables when their relationship is known to be curvilinear, you should use:

a. eta
b. phi
c. biserial
a. eta
A correlation of 0 between X and Y is suggested by a scattergram when:

a. the variability of Y scores is the same at all values of X
b. the variability of Y scores at all values of X is equal to the total variabilty of Y scores
c. the variability of Y scores is less than the variablity of X scores at all values of X
b. the variability of Y scores at all values of X is equal to the total variabilty of Y scores
Multicollinearity:

a. increases the probability that a correlation coefficient will be statistically significant
b. refers to high correlations between predictors and is a problem in multiple regression
c. refers to high correlations between each predictor and the criterion and is desirable in multiple regression
b. refers to high correlations between predictors and is a problem in multiple regression
A psychologist wants to use attitude toward the company, years of experience, and need for achievement to predict whether a job applicant is likely to be a "successful manager" or an "unsuccessful manager." The psychologist knows there is a nonlinear relationship bewteen need for achievement and success, with a moderate need for achievement being characteristic of successful managers and a low and high need for achievement being more characteristic of unsuccessful managers. The correct multivariate technique for this situation is:

a. canonical correlation
b. discriminant analysis
c. logistic regression
c. logistic regression
Path analysis is used to:

a. test a theory of causal order among a set of variables
b. develop a causal model involving multiple variables
c. identify causal antecedents
a. test a theory of causal order among a set of variables
If the correlation bewteen X and Y is .70 this means that _____ percent of the variability in Y is explained by variablity in X.
49
If the Pearson r is used to correlate two variables and have a curvilinear relationship, the correlation coefficient is likely to _____ (overestimate/underestimate) their true relationship.
underestimate
For your original sample, R-squared equals .64. When you cross-validate on another sample, R-squared is likely to _____ .
smaller (less than .64)
A school psychologist wants to determine if there is a significant difference in reading readiness scores between male and female students in the school's preschool program. she obtains scores on a standardized reading readiness test for 17 girls and 13 boys. Which statistical test will be most appropriate for determining if there is a significant difference between the scores obtained by boys and girls:

a. two-way ANOVA
b. Student's t-test
c. Kolmogorov test
d. chi-square test for contingency tables
b. A t-test (a.k.a. Student's t-test) is used to compare the mean scores obtained by two groups.

a. INCORRECT - the two-way ANOVA is used when a study involves two independent variables. In this study, there is one IV (gender).

c. INCORRECT - the Kolmogorov test is used iwth a single sample and ordinal data

d. INCORRECT - the chi-square test is used to analyze frequency (nominal) data.
A multiple regression equation yields a predicted criterion score for an examinee based on the examinee's scores on the predictors included in a test battery. when computing a multiple regression equation, each test is weighted:

a. in direct proportion to its correlation with the criterion and in inverse proportion to its correlation with the other predictors in the test battery
b. in inverse proportion to its correlation with the criterion and in direct proportion to its correlation with the other predictors in the test battery
c. in direct proportion to its correlation iwth the criterion and with the other predictors in the test battery
d. in inverse proportion to its correlation with the criterion and with the other predictors in the test battery.
a. by computing the multiple regression equation so that each test is weighted in direct proportion to its correlation with the criterion and in inverse proportion to its correlation with other tests, the test with the highest criterion-related validity and the least amount of overlap (correlation) with the other tests will be given the largest weight, while the test with the lowest criterion-related validity and the most overlap with other tests will be given the smallest weight.
During the course of the data analysis, a researcher more often double-checks results that seem to conflict with her hypothesis than results that confirm it. This is an example of:

a. the experimenter expectancy effect
b. demand characteristics
c. the Pygmalion Effect
d. a correspondence bias
a. Experimenter expectancy (bias) occurs when the experimenter's behavior biases the research results in some (usually unconscious) way so that the results are consistent with the research hypothesis.

b. INCORRECT - Demand characteristics are cues in the research situation that communicate to subjects what behaviors are expected of them. Experimenter expectencies can act as a source of demand characteristics (although that wouldn't be the case in this situation).

c. INCORRECT - The Pygmalion Effect (aka the self-fulfilling or Rosenthal effect) occurs when a person's expectations about another individual actually produce subtle changes in the individual's behavior so that the behavior conforms to the person's expectations.

d. INCORRECT - Correspondence bias is another name for the fundamental attribution bias, which is the tendency for observers to attribute another person's behavior to dispositional (rather than situational) factors.
If your statistical test has low "power," this also means that:

a. there is low probability of making a Type II error
b. there is high probability of making a Type I error
c. you will not likely obtain statistically significant results
d. you have set the level of significance too high
c. although it will be more difficult to reject the null hypothesis, it would not be impossible.

a. INCORRECT - power is equal to one minus beta, where beta is equal to the probability of making a Type II error (of retaining a false null hypothesis). Thus, there is an inverse relationship between power and a Type II error, and if there is low power, there's a high probability that a Type II error will be made.

b. INCORRECT - The easier it is to make a Type II error, the more difficult it is to make a Type I error. As noted above, when there is low power, there is a high probability of making a Type II error. Consequently, there is a low probability of making a Type I error.

d. INCORRECT - One way to increase power is to increase the level of significance since this has the effect of increasing the rejection region. Thus, if you have low power, you are more likely to have set the level of significance too low.
When conducting a research study, you want to ensure that you will detect a difference between the treatment group and the control group. Therefore you wil:

a. decrease error variance by decreasing the magnitude of the independent variable
b. increase experimental variance by controlling the effects of extraneous variable
c. increase experimental variance by increasing the magnitide of the IV
d. decreasing the probability of making a Type II error (retaining a false null hypothesis) by increasing beta
c.