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31 Cards in this Set

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actor-observer bias
When making actributions:

overestimates dispositional factors of others

underestimates dispositional factors of self
attitude-behaviour discrepancy
attitudes not accurate predictors of behaviour

unless used as measure of behavioural intention(Ajzen)
study: pseudopatients
Rosenhan

roles of social context and labelling on impression formation
fundamental attribution bias
overestimate dispositional causes & underestimates situational causes
study: epinephrine
Schachter

when we don't know the cause of our feelings, we look to others

support for self-perception theory
overjustification hypothesis
when reworded for a task they previsouly found intrinsically interesting, their intrinsic interest in the task will decrease

i.e. they thought enjoyment of task was due to external rather than internal factors
compliance techniques
foot-in-the-door
door-in-the-face
low-ball
sources of power (6)
cocercive
reward
expert
legitimate
referent
informational
psychological reactance
resit being influenced by doing the opposite of what is desired
inoculation
resistance to attitude change increase through inoculation

provide contrary arguments first, then weak counterarguments BEFORE persuasive message is heard
elaboration likelihood model
persuasion can occur through central or peripheral route
study: cognitive dissonance
Festinger

dull experiment, paid $1 or $20

$1 subjects said they enjoyed experiment, 'cos had no incentive for lying, therefore changed own attitude toward experiment to reduce feelings of dissonance
deindividuation
Zimbardo

more likely to act aggressively if anonymous (e.g. in a crowd)
study: prison
Zimbardo

role expectations influence a person's willingness to act aggressively
study: Robber's Cave
Sherif

boys attending summer camp divided into 2 groups

superordinate goals reduced hostility demonstrating cooperation
intergroup contact hypothesis
group antagonism reduced when interactions provide opportunities to disconfirm negative stereotypes
study: jigsaw classroom
cooperation benefits all students
Schachter's research on affiliation
misery loves miserable company

re: study of highly anxiety people prefering waiting with other anxious people
def: ingratiation
method of impression management, to reduce power differential

e.g. flattery, agreement
fale consensus bias
tend to overestimate the degree to which others are similar to us
Heider's attribution theory
Causal attributins can be desribed in terms of several dimensions:

dispositional vs situational
stable vs unstable
specific vs global
controllable vs uncontrollable
correspondent inference threory
Jones & Davis

make inferences about personal disposition based on behaviour alone

i.e. kind act, so must be kind
Weiner's attribution theory about success & falure
2 dimensions:
internal-external
temporary-stable
self-serving bias
attribute positive outcomes to dispositional factors

attrubute negative outcomes to external factors

(opposite when depressed)
According to attribution theory, dissatisfied partners are more likely to ascribe:

1. negative events to ...
2. positive events to ...
1. GLOBAL, STABLE characteristics of partner

2. SPECIFIC, UNSTABLE causes
Measurement of attitudes
Likert scale
Semantic Differential Scale
Thurstone Scale
Guttman Scale
Social Distance Scale

p. 25
coercive family interaction model
attributes aggressiveness in children to certain parent-child interactions
reasons for bystander apathy (3)
1. assistance unnecessary 'cos others not helping

2. fear of social disapproval

3. don't accept personal responsibility 'cos assuem others will offer help
gain-loss theory

re: attraction
attraction to a person maximized when a person's reactions are negative at first, then change to positive
social exchange theory

re: attraction
attraction when rewards of relationship exceed its costs
density intensity hypothesis

re: crowding
crown enhances positive experiences but makes unpleasnt situations even more unpleasant