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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
depression and sleep
more rapid onset of REM sleep, decreased percentage of slow wave sleep, and increased percentage of REM sleep. The research also suggests that individuals with no prior history of depression but who have rapid REM onset have an increased risk of developing depression
Vivienne Cass
1st nonpathologizing model of homosexual identity formation

individuals go through a six-stage, non-age specific, process of homosexual identity development. The stages are: identity awareness (conscious of being different); identity comparison (believes may be homosexual, acts heterosexual); identity tolerance (realizes is homosexual); identity acceptance (begins to explore gay community); identity pride (becomes active in gay community); and synthesis (fully accepts self and others
Richard Troiden
outlined a four-stage age-graded model of homosexual identity formation: sensitization, identity confusion, identity, identity assumption, and commitment
four-stage coming out process: first awareness, testing and exploration, identity acceptance, and commitment
developed a three-stage model/homosexual identity: prohibition; ambivalence/practicing or compulsion/exploration; and consolidation/integration
Total Quality Management (TQM)
an organizational philosophy that focuses on maximizing customer service and satisfaction. An important characteristic of TQM is its involvement of employees in all aspects of decision-making, and failures are often due to management's unwillingness to do this
job evaluation
method of determining the worth or value of jobs in an organization
Social identity theory
states that social identity, the aspect of self-esteem based on group membership, is enhanced by believing one’s own group (the ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups)
Eidetic imagery
photographic memory, is associated with improved ability to memorize information and tends to be more common in children
differential validity
different validity coefficients for different groups, which is what is suggested by different regression line slopes in a scatterplot
serial position effect
predicts that the poorest recall will be for information in the middle of a list
When there is a brief delay, memory for information at the beginning of the list is better than memory for information at the end of the list
Perry and Busey
focus on family interaction factors in the development of aggressive behavior. They propose that aggression is related to parental rejection and lack of warmth and use of harsh forms of discipline
additive, conjunctive, disjunctive, and compensatory tasks
Additive tasks permit the addition of individual efforts so that the outcome is a combination of individual contributions.
On conjunctive tasks, everyone must achieve a given goal in order for the task to be complete. As a result, task performance depends on the performance of the least competent group member. On disjunctive tasks, the group must choose one of many alternative ways to do the task. Thus, performance on a task depends on the performance of the most competent group member, because if one person can complete the task, the task gets completed. on compensatory tasks, the average performance of all group members represents the group's product.
Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM) includes four types of influences on making career decisions: genetic characteristics and special abilities; environmental conditions and events; learning experiences; and performance standards and values. Social learning influences can be positive or negative factors
Bem’s gender schema theory
children develop schema about what is expected of them as girls or boys and then apply those schemas to their own behavior. Because it emphasizes both social, notably sociocultural factors, and cognitive processes, it is classified as a social-cognitive approach
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)
an umbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual exposed to alcohol during pregnancy including physical, mental, behavioral effects, and/or learning disabilities
Resistances to contact
the defenses that one develops as a self-protective attempt to avoid the anxiety necessitated by change and prevents full experiencing in the present
introjection, projection, deflection, confluence and retroflection
individual is capable of fulfilling his or her own needs for survival, power, belonging, freedom and fun, without harming self or infringing on the rights of others, then he or she has developed a “success identity.” When the needs are met irresponsibly then the individual has developed a “failure identity.”
Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
attempts to explain stress reactions and characteristic responses under conditions of stress. It postulates that after a person becomes aware of the stressful situation (alarm), they summon their resources and meet the challenge (resistance). After the trauma is over, they collapse (exhaustion)
Social Judgment Theory
categorizes new information or positions into one of three zones or latitudes: latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitment, and latitude of rejection
reciprocal determinism
the relationship between personal factors or cognitions, behavior and the environment take turns influencing or being influenced by each other
the ability to chunk or to move information between working memory and long-term so rapidly and efficiently that the processes entails virtually no attention on the part of the individual
decreased slow-wave or non-REM sleep as well as, early morning waking, decreased sleep continuity and earlier onset of REM sleep or decreased REM latency
Ecological fallacy
a logic error that occurs when trying to prove causation, levels of data are mismatched and statistics are applied at one level to infer to data of another level
relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and achievement outcomes
self-efficacy positively related to work-related performance and that the relationship is moderated by task complexity and situational factors present in work environments
cue deflation
the extinction of a response to one cue leads to an increased reaction to the other conditioned stimulus
Marfan’s syndrome and Von Willebrand’s disease
an autosomal dominant gene
Structured Learning Therapy
social skills training, an early approach to the treatment of depression, along with modeling, role-playing, skill instruction, and performance appraisal.
Morita Therapy
psychology of action, is a Japanese therapeutic intervention developed by Japanese psychologist Shoma Morita in the early part of the twentieth century originally to treat anxiety and neurosis. Morita therapy doesn’t deal with the past, inner dynamics, or with emotions directly as a prerequisite to change. Emphasis is on learning to accept the internal fluctuations of thoughts and feelings and ground behavior in reality and the purpose of the moment. The focus is on the external environment, behavior, and distinguishing what is and is not controllable. All emotions are accepted as valid, pain is inevitable and there is no attempt to control or govern feelings. Concrete effort to take action, with or without success and despite the accompanying emotions, is encouraged. Progress is measured by degree of responsiveness to behavioral demands and in the effort for self improvement
Leader member exchange theory (LMX)
the nature of the relationship between a leader and member is the determining factor as to whether a member belongs to the “in-group” or the “out-group” and that not all members of the organization achieve the same quality relationship
Fiedler's Contingency Model
3 dimensions of situational control
leader-member relations, task-structure, and leader position power
Prader-Willi syndrome and cru-du-chat
caused by a chromosomal deletion which occurs when part of a chromosome is missing
Turner Syndrome
only females, absence of one X chromosome
Implosive therapy
imaginal exposure to a feared stimulus. The person is immediately exposed to the stimulus at its maximum intensity. The purpose of implosive therapy is to extinguish a person's fear; in addition, the technique incorporates psychodynamic themes thought to underlie the fear into the imagery
schemas that tell us what sequence of actions to expect in certain settings
Minuchin's Structural Family Therapy
based on and extends general family systems theory

goal is to restructure maladaptive family structures, including family subsystems and boundaries
sexual dimorphism
differences between males and females in body size and shape
focused primarily on variations in social relationships that act as high risk or protective factors
classical extinction
Classical extinction involves "unpairing" the conditioned and the unconditioned stimulus -- for instance, repeatedly exposing the person to dogs that don't bite
Bem's self-perception theory
when internal cues are weak or difficult to interpret, we rely on observations of our behavior and/or circumstances in which this behavior occurs to interpret our attitudes, emotions, and other internal states
tetrachoric coefficient
both variables are artiifiicially dichotomized
thermal feedback
more effective w/ migraines than relaxation
emg biofeedback
used for tesion headaches, as effective as relaxation
smallest unit of language
smallest unit of language that carries meaning
a whole word, which, when combined with gestures and intonation can express an entire thought
biofeedback aimed at controlling
parasympathetic nervous system
elaboration likelihood model
a cognitive model of attitude change that predicts that persuasion can occur in one of two ways--through a central and peripheral route