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38 Cards in this Set

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Use: protocol analysis
type of content analysis

to study cognitions underlying problem-solving

subjects asked to "think aloud"
Use: interval recording
method of behavioural sampling

devide a period of time into discrete intervals and record whether the behaviour occurs

used for behaviours that are (1) complex, or (2) have no clear beginning or end

e.g. laughing, playing
Use: event sampling
method of behaviour sampling

records each occurrence of a behaviour during a preselected event

used for behaviours that are (1) rare, or (2)leave a permanent record

e.g. completed test
Shortcomings of case studies (2)
1. cannot draw conlcusions about exact relationship between variables

2. information may not be generalizable to other cases
A shortcoming with surveys

Methods to avoid this (4)
Nonresponse bias

1. follow-up
2. info about study
3. small reward
4. pre-contacting individuals by phone
Diff: true experimental research vs. quasi-experimental research
random assignment
Diff: random assignment vs. random selection
RA - observed effect on DV more likely to be caused by IV

RS - generalize findings from sample to population
Def: cluster sampling

Def: multistage cluster sampling
selecting uinits or groups of individuals from population
e.g. schools, hospitals

can randomly select individuals from each unit
Def: placebo control group
comparison group exposed to nonspecific aspects of the treatment

e.g. expectations of improvement
Def & Use: ANCOVA
analysis of covariance

statistical control of extraneous variable (the covariate)
Def: systematic vs. random error
SE - error due to extraneous variables

RE - error due to random fluctuations in subjects, experiment conditions, methods of measurement
Controlling variability due to extraneous variables
random assignment
hold extraneous variable constant
matching
blocking
ANCOVA
What does internal validity demonstrate?
casual relationship between IV and DV
Def: statistical regression
extreme scores closer to mean when test readministered
Def: analogue studies
conducted in lab or other artificial settings
What does external validity demonstrate?
relationship between IV and DV can be generalized
Threats to external validity
Interaction bet testing & treatment

Interaction bet selection & treatment

Reactivity
Use: Solomon four-group design
to control pretest sensitization
reactivity
awareness of being observed in study
demand characteristics
cues in experiment informing subject how to behave
Experimenter expectancy
bias an experimenter introduces into sutyd as a result of expectations about sutyd's outcomes
Single-blind vs. double-blind study
S-B = subs don't know what group they are in

D-B = subs AND experimenter don't know
Def: Hawthorne effect
subjects perform better due to attention
Def: Solomon four-group design
controls effects of pretesting
Types of group designs
between-groups/subjects
within-subjects
mixed
Factorial design
when a study includes 2 or more IVs
Benefits of factorial design
can analyze:
1) main effects of each IV
2) interaction bet IVs
Main effect
effects of different levels of a single IV
Interaction
impact of one IV differs at different levels of another IV

If significant interaction... main effects should be interpreted with caution
How do you control for carryover effects or multiple tx interference
counterbalancing
Which is more powerful?

Between-subjects design
Within-subjects design
within-subjects design.

fewer subjects needed
controls for individual diffs
Autocorrelation or serial dependancy
performance on post-tests likely to correlate with performance on pretests
Eg: Mixed design or "split-plot"
counterbalnced design

makes comparisons bet groups and within groups
Def: reversal (withdrawal) design
single-subject desgin with at least 2 baselines and 1 tx.

tx is withdrawn or reversed

e.g ABA or ABAB
3 types single-subject designs
AB
reversal (ABA or ABAB)
multiple baseline
Def: factorial design
any research design that includes 2 or more factors (IVs)
Use: formative program evaluation
when program is in process of being developed

to see if program is being implemented as intended
Use: summative program evaluation
once program has been developed

assessing program's effectivenss to decide on continuation or expansion