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99 Cards in this Set

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Sensory memory
Unprocessed copies of stimulus remaining in sensory organs for 2-3 seconds
Presbyopia
Loss of elasticity in lens with age; results in "far-sightedness"
Cingulate cortex
Limbic system; exitatory role in emotions, motivating behaviors, mediates sex and eating satisfaction
Vision
Peripheral=anterior occipital lobe
Central=posterior occipital lobe
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Lesions in amygdala; reduced fear/aggression, increased acquiescence, hypersexuality
Serotonin and eating
High S. = anxiety and low appetite; Low S. = depression and maybe binge eating
Inability to recognize objects by touching; unaware of deficit
Agnosia
Cryptomnesia
Perceiving memory as original idea
Source amnesia
Memory for facts without source--when, where, with whom facts were learned
Lesions to Wernicke's area are likely to result in...
Deficits in language processing
Trichromatic theory
Color vision mediated by 3 types of cones: red, green, blue. Combination of output determines color perceived.
Opponent process theory
Color vision mediated by 3 types of receptors:red/ green, blue/yellow, black/ white. Activation of red inhibits green, etc.
Tolerance
Decreasing responsiveness to a drug. Need larger doses for same effect. Does not apply equally to all effects of given drug.
Withdrawal
Psychological/physical syndrome from abrupt cessation of drug in habituated user. Varies depending on drug.
Synergistic effects
Drug interaction: Example: alcohol + other sedative/hypnotic = additive effects.
Amphetamines
Block reuptake at noradrenergic/dopaminergic synapses=potentiation of effect. Physiologically stimulating. Used for narcolepsy/hyperactivity
Amphetamine psychosis
Psychotic-like reaction like paranoid schizophrenia resulting from long-term use or very large dose
Amphetamine Untoward Effects
Due to overdose-toxicity: nausea, vomiting, anxiety, irritability, palpitations, dizziness, confusion, dysphoria, and apprehension
MAOIs
Best for atypical depression (e.g., with anxiety, hostility, increased appetite, hypochondriasis
MAOI's untoward effects
Drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, tremor, orthostatic hypotension, edema. Overdose can be fatal. Cannot use with tyramine (foods/drugs)
Tricyclic anti-depressants
Best for unipolar and non-reactive depression. Tofranil, Sinequan, Elavil
Tricyclic side effects
Anticholinergic, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, palpiations, hypertension, sedation, confusion, disorientation, insomnia, rash, paresthesia, nausea, vomiting, weight gain, changes in libido, paradoxical depression/ anxiety. More common in elderly. Overdose lethal
Anxiolytics
Minor tranquilizer/anti-anxiety. Meprobanate, benzos.Benzos best for acute, severe, reactive with agitation,apprehension, tension
Anxiolytics side effects
Drowsiness, lethargy, ataxia. Psychological dependence. Chronic use = tolerance/physical dependence. Meprobanate = more severe withdrawal
Aphagia
Lack of eating resulting from destruction of lateral hypothalamus (LHA)
Expressive aphasia
Inability to produce language associated with damage to Broca's area
Receptive aphasia
Deficits in comprehension of spoken/written language associated with damage to Wernicke's area
Conduction aphasia
Inabiity to distinguish and repeat speech sounds caused by damage to arcuate fasciculus
Ataxia
Inability to coordinate voluntay body movements due to cerebellar pathology
Visual agnosia
Inability to interpret meaning of visual stimuli; aka "psychic blindness"
Frequency theory of audition
Auditory perception related to nerve impulse frequency in auditory nerve, which matches frequency of stimulus for less than 1000 Hz
Place theory of audition
Perception of high frequency tones is a function of place on basilar membrane stimulated by tone
Autonomic nervous system
Part of PNS. Visceral fx (heart rate, sweating, blood pressure,respiration, digestion. May be brought under control with biofeedback. Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches
Somatic nervous system
Part of PNS that carries info between CNS and sensory system and skeletal muscles. Ordinarily voluntary activity
Barbituates
Sedative/hypnotic. Very lethal, no longer often prescribed
Barbituate side effects
Slurred speech,nystagmus, dizziness,irritability, impaired motor/cognitive fx. Overdose=confusion,agitation,disorientation,cold clammy skin,dilated pupils, respiratory depression, death. REM rebound
Broca's area
Motor speech area in frontal lobe anterior to motor cortex. Related to production of speech
Wernicke's area
Speech area in temporal lobe (usually left). Related to understanding of written/ spoken language
Catecholamine hypothesis of depression
Related to lower levels of norepinephrine/dopamine. Mania is from excess of these
Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
Oversensitivity of dopamine receptors. Dopamine blockers reduce symptoms. Increasers exacerbate symptoms
Central nervous system
Nerve cells, fibers, tissues of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Nervous system elements outside brain and spinal cord. Includes autonomic and somatic nervous systems
Contralateral presentation
Cerebral hemispheres control functions of opposite side of body
Diabetes Insipidus
Caused by insufficient anti-diurectic hormone (ADH), resulting in inability to retain body water (polyuria)
Diabetes Mellitus
Caused by insufficient insulin resulting in inability of cells to use blood sugar (glucose). Fatigue,weakness,increased susceptibility to infection
Pharmokinetic drug interaction
One drug interferes with absorption,distribution, transformation,or excretion of another drug, raising or lowering concentration
Pharmacodynamic drug interaction
One drug combines with another drug and increases or decreases its effects at action sites.
Cannon-Bard theory
Bodily reactions and experience of emotion occur simultaneously and are controlled by thalamus
James-Lange theory
Emotions reflect experience of visceral and muscular reactions to certain stimuli, "we feel afraid because we are running."
Extrapyramical motor system
Controls and coordinates motor activities for balance, posture, and locomotion; includes basal ganglia, substantia nigra, areas of midbrain, motor neurons of spinal cord
Memory loss associated with AD has been linked to which neurotransmitter?
Acetylcholine
Hydrocephalus involves which brain structures?
Cerebral ventricles
The body's circadian rhythms are controlled by the:
Hypothalamus
Damage to the prefrontal cortex is most likely to result in deficits in:
Executive cognitive functions
An adult with damage to his hippocampus can be expected to:
Forget events that occur after the damage
Acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system
Causes muscles to contract. Myasthenia gravis-autoimmune d/o that attacks Ach receptors, results in weakness of skeletal muscles
Acetylcholine in central nervous system
Involved in REM sleep, sleep-wake cycle, memory
How is acetylcholine linked to AD?
Cholinergic degeneration in entorhinal cortex/other areas that communicate with hippocampus leads to memory deficits
Name two types of cholinergic receptors
Nicotinic: exictatory, enhances alertness/memory by mimicking ACh at nicotinic receptors
Nuscarinic - inhibitory
Catecholamines
Include norephinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine. Involved in personality, mood, memory, sleep
Low levels of norepinenphrine have been associated with...
some forms of depression
Excessive activity at dopamine receptor sites has been associated with...
Schizophrenia and Tourette's
What is the role of dopamine in movement?
Degeneration of Da receptors in substantia nigra=tremors, muscle rigidity, sxs of Parkinson's
Elevated levels of dopamine in the mesolimbic system have been associated with...
reinforcing effects of stimulants, opiates, alcohol, and nicotine. Cocaine blocks reuptake of Da;nicotine stimulates release of Da
Serotonin (5-HT)
Inhibitory; implicated in mood, hunger, temperature regulation, sexual activity, arousal, sleep, aggression, migraine headache
Elevated levels of 5-HT are associated with...
autism and schizophrenia
Low levels of 5-HT are associated with...
depression, suicide, PTSD, OCB, aggression
GABA (Bamma-aminobutyric acid)
inhibitory; linked to sleep, eating, seizure, anxiety
What is the relationship of GABA to anxiety?
GABA levels are affected by benzos and other CNS depressants used to treat anxiety
What is the relationship between GABA and Huntington's Disease?
Degeneration of GABA secreting cells in basal ganglia contribue to motor symptoms of Huntingdon's
Glutamate
excitatory; role in learning and memory, long-term potentiation (formation of long-term memories)
Excessive glutamate receptor activity is linked to...
seizures, may contribute to stroke-related brain damage, Huntingdon's Disease, AD, and other neurodegenerative disorders
Endorphins
"endogenous morphines"; inhibitory neuromodulators; lower sensitivity of post- synaptic neurons to neurotransmitters
Endorphins have been associated with...
analgesic effects, pain relief from acupuncture, runner's high, control of emotions, memory & learning, and sexual behavior
Hindbrain
Cerebellum, medulla, pons
The medulla is responsible for...
flow of info between spinal cord and brain; coordination of swallowing, coughing, sneezing, regulation of breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure. Damage often fatal.
The pons...
connects two halves of cerebellum; involved in integration of movements in right/left sides of body
Midbrain
contains reticular formation
Role of reticular activating system
Vital to consciousness, arousal, wakefulness; screens sensory input, arouses higher centers of brain when needed.
Damage to reticular activating system is associated with...
disruption of sleep-wake cycle, can produce coma-like state of sleep.
Forebrain
Subcortical structures and cerebral cortex
Subcortical structures comprise...
Thalamus, hypothalamus with suprachiasmatic nucleus, basal ganglis, limbic system (amygdala, hippocampus)
The role of the thalamus is...
a relay station, transmits incoming sensory info to cortex (not olfaction); also motor activity, language, memory
Korsakoff Syndrome results from...
atrophy of neurons in dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus and mammillary bodies of hypothalamus, due to thiamine deficiency (usually results from alcoholism). Involves severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia, confabulation
Hypothalamus
Involved in hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, body temperature, movement, emotional reactions
Damage to the hypothalamus can result in what emotional changes?
Uncontrollable laughter, intense rage or aggression
What structures comprise the basal ganglia?
Caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra
In what functions are the basal ganglia involved?
Planning, organizing and coodinating voluntary movement; regulating amplitude and direction of motor actions; sensorimotor learning, smiling, frowning, running when fearful
Basal ganglia pathology includes...
Huntingdon's, Parkinson's, Tourette's. Sometimes implicated in mania, depression, ocd, psychosis
What is the role of the amygdala?
integrates, coordinates, directs motivational and emotional activities, attaches emotions to memory, helps in recall of emotion experiences
What is the role of the hippocampus?
Involved in processing spatial, visual, verbal info and consolidating declarative memory (storage takes palce in frontal/ temporal lobes)
Apraxia
Inability to perform skilled motor movements in the absence of impaired motor functiong, and somatosensory agnosia, related to parietal lobe damage
Tactile agnosia
Inability to recognize familiar objects by touch
Asomatognosia
Failure to recognize parts of one's own body
Anosognosia
Inability to recognize one's own neurological symptoms or other disorder
Gertsmann Syndrome
Left parietal lesion, results in finger agnosia, right-left confusion, agraphia, and acalculia
Prosopagnosia
Inability to recognize familiar faces
Gate control theory of pain
Nervous system can process only limited amt of sensory info. Spinal cord acts as gate blocking some incoming pain signals. Massage injured area, apply heat/ cold, use distracting mental activities
Synesthesia
Rare condition; stimulation of 1 sensory modality triggers sensation in another (hear a color, taste a shape)