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117 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Types of neurotransmitters
ACh
Catecholamines
Serotonin
GABA
Glutamate
Endorphins
ACh: function
voluntary motor movements
memory

* LOW levels ACh in Alzheimer's
Catecholamines: function
personality
mood
drive

* catecholamine hypot
* dopamine hypot
Examples of catecholamines
norepinephrine
epinephrine
dopamine
Catecholamine hypothesis
Depression due to:

LOW levels norepinephrine
Dopamine hypothesis
Schizophrenia due to:

HIGH levels dopamine
Serotonin: function
hunger
temperature regulation
sexual activity
aggression
onset of sleep
Serotonin hypothesis
Schizophrenia & Autism associated with:

HIGH levels serotonin


Depression, PTSD, OCD associated with:

LOW levels serotonin
GABA: function
sleep
eating
seizure
anxiety disorder

* LOW levels GABA in Huntington's Disease
Glutamate: function
learning
long-term memory

HIGH glutamate in Huntington's & Alzheimer's
Medulla: function

[brainstem; hindbrain]
vital ANS functions:

circulation
respiration
Medulla: damage

[brainstem; hindbrain]
fatal
Pons: function

[brainstem; hindbrain]
transmits motor info from higher brain & spinal cord to cerebellum

integrates movements in R & L sides of body

respiration
feeding
sleep
Cerebellum: function

[brainstem; hindbrain]
balance
posture
coordinated & refined motor movements
Cerebellum: damage
[brainstem; hindbrain]
"ataxia"

lack of balance
severe tremors
drunken-like movements
Reticular Activating System (RAS): function

[midbrain]
screens incoming info & relays to higher centers of brain

arousal
Reticular Activating System (RAS): damage

[midbrain]
disrupts normal sleep-wakefulness cyle

possible permanent coma-like sleep
Thalamus: function

[diencephalon; forebrain]
"relay station" for all sensory input (EXCEPT olfaction)
Thalamus: damage

[diencephalon; forebrain]
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
- caused by thiamine deficiney as a result of alcoholism
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
caused by thiamine deficiney as a result of alcoholism

severe anterograde amnesia
retrograde amnesia
confabulation
Hypothalamus: function

[diencephalon; forebrain]
maintains body's internal HOMEOSTASIS

controls ANS & endocrine glands
mediates basic drives
regulates emotional expression
Amygdala: function

[limbic sys; telencephalon; forebrain]
controls emotional activities

mediates defensive-aggressive bheaviours

attaches emotions to memories
Amygdala: damage
[limbic sys; telencephalon; forebrain]
reduced aggressiveness

Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
- compulsive oral behaviours
- hypersexuality
- visual agnosia
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
damage to amygdala

compulsive oral behaviours
hypersexuality
visual agnosia
Hippocampus: function

[limbic sys; telencephalon; forebrain]
consolidation of memory
Hippocampus: damage

[limbic sys; telencephalon; forebrain]
inability to form new memories
Frontal lobe: function

[cerebral cortex]
emotion & personality
planning
decision making
Cerebral cortex makes _____ % of the brain's total weight
80%
Frontal lobe: damage

[cerbral cortex]
changes in personality
loss of a sense of "self"
inability to carry out plans
Parietal lobe: function

[cerbral cortex]
somatosensory cortex

pain
pressure
heat
cold
Parietal lobe: damage

[cerbral cortex]
impairments in:

spatial orientation
touch
facial recognition

* can cause Gerstmann syndrome
Temporal: function

[cerbral cortex]
auditory perception
Occipital: function

[cerbral cortex]
visual perception
limbic system is primary associated with ___________
emotion
4 lobes of cerebral cortex
frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
Basal Ganglia: function

[telencephalon; forebrain]
planning
organizing
voluntary movement
regulating motor actions
Basal Ganglia: associated disorders

[telencephalon; forebrain]
Parkinson's
Tourette's

Mania
Depression
OCD
Psychosis
hemispheric specialization
LEFT (dominant)
verbal activities
analytical, logical thought
positive emotional states

RIGHT
visual-spatial activities
e.g. facial recognition
spatial interpretation
memory for shapes
negative emotions
corpus callosum
major pathway for info travelling between hemispheres
2 branches of nervous system
central nervous system

peripheral nervous system
structures of CNS
brain
spinal cord
Autonomic Nervous System: function
controls internal glands/organs, including:

heart
bladder
stomach
endocrine glands
sympathetic nervous system: function

[autonomic nervous sys; peripheral nervous sys]
active during stress & excitement

promotes energy expenditure by:

inc blood sugar
accelerating breathing
raising blood pressure & heart rate
parasympathetic nervouse system: function

[autonomic nervous sys; peripheral nervous sys]
operates during states of relaxation

helps body conserve energy by:

slowing heart rate & blood flow
inhibiting glucose release
constricting blood vessels
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): location & function
hypothalamus

mediates sleep-wake cycle
mediates circadian rhythms

*involved in Seasonal Affective Disorder
Broca's area: location & function

[premotor cortex; frontal lobe; cerebral cortex]
premotor cortex

speech production
Broca's area: damage

[premotor cortex; frontal lobe; cerebral cortex]
Broca's (expressive) aphasia

- difficulties in producing spoken & written language
Prefrontal cortex: function

[frontal lobe; cerebral cortex]
complex behaviours

emotion
semory
self-awareness
executive functions
Prefrontal cortex: damage

[frontal lobe; cerebral cortex]
pseudodepression

pseudopsychopathy

probs w/ abstract thinking, planning, decision-making
perseveration
apraxia
inability to perform skilled motor movements in absence of impaired motor functioning
anosognosia
inability to recognize one's own neurological sx or other disorder
Wernicke's area: location & function

[temporal lobe; cerebral cortex]
dominant temporal lobe

comprehension of language
visual agnosia
inability to recognize familiar objects
simultanagnosis
inability to see more than one thing or one aspect of an object at a time
prosopagnosia
inability to recognize familiar faces
contralateral representation
L side of brain controls R side of body, and vice versa
Hemispheric specialization
LEFT (dominant)
written & spoken language
logical & analytical thinking

RIGHT
spatial processing
creativity
facial recognition
"split-brain" patients
sever corpus callosum to control severe epilepsy

deficits in ability to verbally identify info presented to RIGHT hemisphere only.
types of colour blindness
Trichromats
normal colour vision

Dichromats
lack 1 of 3 pigments
usually red-green blind

Monochromats
no colour vision
3 theories of emotion
James-Lange theory

Cannon-Bard theory

two-factor (cognitive) theory
James-Lange theory of emotion
emotions represent perceptions of bodily reactions

e.g. you are afraid because your knees are skaking

support from quadriplegics experiencing less intense emotions following injury
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
emotional & bodily reactions to stimuli occur simultaneously
Two-factor (cognitive) theory of emotion
emotion a consequence of:
1. physiological arousal
2. cognitive interpretation
3. enviornmental context

support from Schachter & Singer's epinephrine study
general adaptation syndrome (Selye)
human response to stress mediated by adrenal-pituitary secretions & involves 3 stages

alarm reaction
resistance (ACTH/cortisol)
exhaustion
gonadotropic hormones
estrogen (ovaries)
progesterone (ovaries)
testosterone (testes)
androstenedion (testes)
androgens
testosterone
androstenedione
closed-head injury
loss of consciousness (coma)
post-traumatic (anterograde) amnesia
sometimes retrograde amnesia
cognitive probs if PTA > 24 hrs
hyperthyroidism vs. hypothyroidism
HYPER (Grave's Disease)
fast metabolism
high body temp
inc appetite w/ weight loss
nervousness

HYPO
slow metabolism
dec appetite w/ weight gain
lethargy
depression
apathy
Broca's Aphasia
"expressive, motor, and nonfluent aphasia"

slow speech w/ difficulty
poor articulation
omissions
anomia
probs repeating phrases

comprehension of language OK
aware of deficits
frustration & depression
Wernicke's Aphasia
"receptive, sensory, and fluent aphasia"

probs understanding
speech devoid of content
anomia
paraphasia

unaware that speech is meaningless
Conduction (Associative) Aphasia
damage to structure that connects Wernicke's & Broca's areas

anomia
inability to repeat words

know what they want to say, but have difficulty
Global Aphasia
total or near-total loss of language

some automatic speech
Transcortical Aphasia
lesion that isolates Broca's leads to:
transcortical MOTOR aphasia

lesion that isolates Wernicke's leads to:
transcortical SENSORY aphasia
2 types of antipsychotic drugs
1. Traditional (conventional)

2. Atypical (novel)
Ex: traditional antipsychotics
phenothiazine
thioxanthene
butyrophenone
Use: traditional antipsychotics
+ve sx of schizophrenia
acute mania

NOT -ve sx of schizophrenia
Action: traditional antipsychotics
blocks dopamine (D2) receptors, therefore dec dopamine
Side effects: traditional antipsychotics
1. tardive dyskinesia (esp w/ Haloperidol)
- can add benzo or other GABA agonist to treat

2. neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
rapid autonomic sx
potentially fatal
stop meds immediately
Ex: Atypical antipsychotics
clozapine
resperidone
olanzapine
quetiapine
Use: Atypical antipsychotics
schizophrenia
bipolar
alc & drugs
huntington's
parkinson's

note: helpful for +ve & -ve sx of schizophrenia, but SLOWER ONSET
Mode: Atypical antipsychotics
block D2, serotonin & glutamate
side effects: Atypical antipsychotics
1. NMS

2. agranulocytosis (blood disorder)

NOT tardive dyskinesia
advantage of atypical vs traditional neuroleptics?
no tartive dyskinesia
helps +ve & -ve sx schiz
advantage of traditional vs atypical neuroleptics?
faster acting
no close blood monitoring
Ex: anticholinergic side effects
dry mouth
blurred vision
tachycardia
constipation
urinary retention
sedation
Ex: extrapyramidal side effects
tardive dyskinesia
akathisia
muscle spasms
parkinsonsim
Types of antidepressants
TCSs

SSRIs

MAOIs

Newer antidepressants
Ex: TCAs
amitriptyline
doxepin
imipramine
clomipramine
Mode: TCAs
block reuptake of norepinephrine, serotonin and/or dopamine, therfore increasing these

supporting catecholomine hypothesis
Side effects: TCAs
cardiovascular sx
anticholinergic effects
when not to prescribe a TCA
high risk for suicide

heart disease
Ex: SSRIs
fluoxetine (prozac)
fluvoxamine (luvox)
paroxetine (paxil)
sertraline (zoloft)
citalpram (celexa)
Mode: SSRIs
blocks reuptake of serotonin, therefore increases it
Use: SSRIs
melancholic depression
etc.
Use: TCAs
vegetative & somatic depression
advantages of SSRIs over TCAs
less cardiotoxic
safer in overdose
less cognitive impairment
more rapid onset
Ex: MAOIs
isocarboxazid
phenelzine
tranylcypromine
Use: MAOIs
atypical depression
- anxiety, hypersomnia
Mode: MAOIs
inhibits enzyme monoamine oxidase, therefore deactivates dopamine, norepinephrine & serotonin
Side effects: MAOIs
hypertensive crisis - when taken w/ barbiturates, amphetamines, antihistamines or food w/ TYRAMINE
Ex: newer antidepressants
bupropion (wellbutrin)
venlafaxine (effexor)
nefazodone (serxone)
trazodone (desyrel)
Types of mood stabilizing drugs
Lithium

Carbamazepine
Side effects: Lithium
toxicity

- serum levels monitored

Must avoid fluctuations in salt intake, caffeine, alcohol
when would you use Carbamazepine instead of Lithium in tx of bipolar disorder
rapid cyclers
dysphoric mood
kidney, liver, thyroid or gastrointestinal probs
Types of sedative-hypnotics
barbiturates

benzodiazepines

Azapirone
Ex: barbiturates
... barbital !!
Mode: barbiturates
interrupt impulses to RAS
Ex: benzos
... lam

... pam
Mode: benzos
inhibits GABA
advantages & disadvantages of Azapirone
non-addictive
no sedation

take for several weeks
Use: Beta blockers
high BP
angine
migraines
glaucoma
Types: psychostimulants
amphetamines

methylphenidate (ritalin)
Use: psychostimulants
narcolepsy
ADHD
Mode: psychostimulants
inc norepinephrine & serotonin
Side effects: amphetamines
tolerance
dependence
sensitization
side effects: Methylphenidate
dysphoria
growth suppression (therefore need drug holidays)

contraindicated for family hx tourette's
Ex: narcotic-analygesics (opioids)
NATURAL OPIODS
opium
morphine
codeine

SEMI-SYNTHETIC DERIVATIVES OF MORPHINE
heroin
percodan
dilaudid

PURE SYNTHETICS
demerol
darvon
methadone