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190 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes are all part of the _.
Cerebral Cortex (lobes)
The frontal lobe controls our primary _
primary MOTOR lobe and controls movement.
In the frontal lobe, neurons are arranged according to _
the MUSCLES they control
( _ is arranged in the _ lobe according to the muscles they control)
The Broca's Area is located in the (L/R) _ lobe.
The FRONTAL lobe, usually the LEFT side.
This allows speech production and damage = expressive aphasia.
What is the BROCA's area.
The _cortex controls complex behaviors (emo', mem, self-awareness, exec func).
Prefrontal cortex
Damage to the prefrontal cortext can cause _, marked by _.
~PSEUDOdepression~

marked by:
apathy, lethargy, low intrsts and low emo' reactions (like low sex drive, mem, attn)


OR
~PseudoPSYCHOPATHY~
Pseudopsychopathy = a change in _(3 things).
Mood, bhvr, cog
Hypofrontality = _ in the prefrontal cortex.
Low METABOLISM in the prefrontal cortex.
Hypofrontality is linked to _ (3 Dx).
All 3 linked to _ : Schizophrenia, ADHD, and Normal age-related cog declines.
The parietal lobes main function is that of _.
Sensory Motor (what lobe?)
The parietal lobe governs _ (5 processes).
_ lobe governs: cutaneous stuff (pressure, temp, pain), proprioception, and gustation.
The main function of the PARIETAL lobe (SENSORY MOTOR) is located in the _.
Postcentral gyrus
(is located in what lobe and what does it control?)
Damage to the postcentral gyrus can = _ (4 fancy names).
ASAP
All can be from damage to the _:
apraxia (ataxia),
somatosensory agnosia,
anosognosia,
poor spacial orientation.
Apraxia (ataxia) = _
Can't do skilled movements.
(call a taxi, cause I got ataxia and appear drunk).
Somatosensory agnosia is when you...
...can't recognize certain somatosensory stuff, such as TASTE, TOUCH, SMELL, etc.
Anosognosia is when you...
...can't see your deficits (or lack of awareness regarding your illness).
FYI - common (-) Sx in schzo
R-side damage to parietal lobe is usually marked by a...
...lack of awareness and concern about the L-side.
(think: Republicans ;-).
L-side damage of the parietal lobe can = _ (3 things).
Ideational Apraxia - sequence
Ideomotor Apraxia - simple, requested.
Gerstmann Syn - R vs L
Gerstmann Syndrome is...
...L vs. R confusion, agnosia, etc.
(think: undecided votes, LOL!)
Temporal lobe, AKA: _
AKA: "AUDITORY cortex"!
Damage to the temporal lobe can = _ (3 Sx).
Auditory Agnosia
Auditory Hallucinations
other perceptual disturbances
Wernike's is usually found in the (L/R) _ lobe.
Left TEMPORAL lobe.
Wernicke's is marked by...
...a difficulty in language COMPREHENTION
(FYI: L-side can damage can also = problems in language production).
In re: memory

Some areas of the TEMPORAL lobe mediate _ (3 processes) of _
This lobe often mediates

encoding, retrieval, and storage
of
LT - DECLARATIVE memories
The OCCIPITAL cortex; AKA
AKA the VISUAL cortex
Damage to the occipital cortex can = _ (3 things).
Visual Agnosia
Visual Hallucinations
and blindness

(all from damage to the _ lobe)
This is when you can't see more than one thing at a time.
What is

~simultanagnosia~

(b/c damage to the L/R _ lobe)
Damage of the occipital lobe "at the junction" causes _
where you can't _
~Prosopagnosia~

-can't recognize familiar faces-
Centralateral Representation is controls _ and is caused by _
controls L and R communication

from severing the
Corpus Collosum
(fibers that bind the 2 halves of the brain).
L-side of brain controls:
~Language and Analytical~
turns lttrs into words;
lang sounds; verbal mem;
speech, reading, arithmetic;
and (+) emo'

(_ controls)
R-side of brain controls:
~Spacial and Creative~
face recognition and complex geometric shapes;
music and non-lang sounds;
nonverbal mem and (-) emo'

(_ controls)
What side of the brain is most dominant?
LEFT side!
_ technique's make it possible to study both the STRUCTURE and FUNCTION of the living brain.
NEUROIMAGING technique's
(study _)
CT stands for _
Computer Tomography
CAT stands for _

and uses _
Computer Axial Tomography

It uses X-RAY
MRI stands for _

and uses _
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

It uses magnetic fields.
What are the advantages of an MRI over a CT or CAT?

(3 things)
1. Several angles

2. Details

3. 3D pictures
MRI, CT, and CAT can be used to Dx _ (3 things).
Tumors
Blood Clots
Multiple Sclerosis
PET stands for _.

It measures _.

Hint: Pet the ROM
POSITRON Emission Tomography

oxygen,
metabolism,
regonal cerebral blood flow
SPECT stands for _.
Single PROTON Emission Computer Tomography
fMRI stands for _.
FUNCTIONAL- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
What seperates PET, SPECT, and fMRI

from that of a

MRI, CT, and/or CAT ?
PET, SPECT, and fMRI all measure NEURO ACTIVITY!!!

The others (MRI, CT, and CAT)measure STRUCTURE only.
PET, SPECT, and fMRI can be used to Dx _ (4 things).
Dementia and Altz
Schizo
Cerebrovascular disease

(What can be used to Dx these - 3 things)
Color perception is _ linked on _ chrom.
Sex linked
X chrom
What are the 2 color perception theories?
Trichromatic theory

and

Opponent-Process theory
Trichromatic
(Young/Helmholz)

The 3 color receptors are _
Color Receptors:

red
blue
green

(what and who's theory?)
Opponent-process theory
(Herings)

states...

*Also, this is evidenced by _?
**And found in the _ (what brain part?)
3 DISTINCT sight receptors:

red-green
yellow-blue
white-black

*evidenced by after-images.
**Thalamus

(who's thoery?)
What are your
CUTANEOUS
senses?
warmth
touch/pain
pressure
In regard to CUTANEOUS senses, receptors gather together in the _ and enter the spine via _.
NERVES

DORSAL ROOTS

(in regard to what senses?)
What is a dermatone?
This is a body area "hooked" to a particular dorsal root.

From Wiki:
A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.
(There are eight cervical nerves, twelve thoracic nerves, five lumbar nerves and five sacral nerves. Each of these nerves relays sensation (including pain) from a particular region of skin to the brain.)
In re: sensation and perception

Adjacent dermatones overlap so that...

(why?)
...damage is lessoned, although not lost completely.

(How? In re: dermatones/cutaneous senses)
This theory states that the nervous system can only process a limited amount of sensory info at once.

Spinal cells act as a "_" that block incoming signals.

(who's theory?)
GATE-CONTROL theory

"gate"

(Melzack)
How does Melzack's
Gate Theory
help to explain the effectiveness of message or applying heat/cold, or using mental distractions to relieve pain?
All these things can help close the gate!

(in re: Gate Theory and pain relief)
1. What is Synesthesia?

2. What is it's cause?
1. This is a joining of senses.
(it's a rare condition where one sensory modality triggers another modality, like "hearing a color or tasting a shape").

2. The cause is unknown, but there are 3 theories:
a. Limbic System's jacked up?
b. Cross-wiring?
c. Neuronal connection's off?
What the hell are Psychophysics?
The relationship btwn
physical stimulus magnitudes
and corresponding
psych sensations.

(Think: Dr. Heller's lab)
-re: psychophysics-

This is the min necessay to produce a sensation.
What is an
ABSOLUTE threshold?
-in re: psychophysics-

This is the smallest increment to produce a discrepancy in sensations.
What is a
DIFFERENCE threshold?
Weber's Law states:
_ Law states:

The more intense a stimulus,
the greater the intensity that's required to also produce
a CHANGE in PERCEPTION.
_ Law states:

Physical stimulus changes are logarithmically related to their psychological sensations.

(Experience of intensity increases as the stimulus increases, geometrically)

(Think: Go Fetch the logic!)
Fechner's Law
*The Steven's Power Law states:

(Think: there is a method to Steven's maddness!)
The _ Law states:

That there is a "method of magnitude estimation".

(ex: if increase a light's instensity-brightness-by 2x, then ppl don't notice it much; however, if you were to increase a shocks intensity - pain- by 2x, ppl rate this as more than doubled!)
Amnesia is when:

No new _ memory ( _ or _ ),
but _ memory and _ memory OK.
This is when:

No new LT MEM,
Explicit or Declarative,
but Implicit and Procedural OK
Encoding uses the

L/R _ cortex.
L Cerebral Cortex

(is used for what process?)
Retrieval uses the

L/R _ cortex
R cerebral cortex,
esp the R FRONTAL.

(is used for what process?)
HERA

stands for _.
Hemispheric Encoding / Retrieval Asymmetry.
In re: Memory,

The TEMPORAL lobe
_ (3 processes) of _ memory.
Encoding, storage, and retrieval
of
LT-DECLARATIVE memories

~L= nonverbal; R=verbal~

(What lobe performs these processes?)
In re: memory

The Hippocampus _ (does what?),
but does NOT _.
TRANSFERS ST-LT memories,
but it does not STORE those memories!

(What part of the brain?)

Think: Big fat banks that will gladly transfer your money, but they don't store it, they spend it on bad mortgages, then we bail them out!
In what way does the Hippocampus have to do with:

1.) Spacial memory - (what does this do?)

2.) Explicit memory - (what does this do?)
The Hippocampus:

1.) _ memory - it's a bank for the placements of objects.

2.) _ memory - it's a bank for conscious recollection.
Stress and CORTISOL greatly effects this brain area that is important in the process of memory!!!
The HIPPOCAMPUS

(Is greatly effected by _?)

Think: The banks stress on the economy.
The _ (brain part, not asking B or W area)is located in the
medial-temporal
(middle of the temporal)
area of the brain.
AMYGDALA

(Is located precisely where?)

It is the almond-shaped nuclei at the end of the "headphones"
The _ gives
EMOTIONAL significance
to memories.

(involved in fear-conditioning, operant-conditioning, trauma, PTSD, etc)
The AMYGDALA

(provides _ significance to what?)
The _ cortex is involved in ST mem, esp WM.

It can be both Episodic and/or Prospective!

Think: what area effects ADHD Sx and how ADHD's have trouble w/ these types of mem)
The PREFRONTAL cortex

(Is involved in _ mem, esp _.
This can be both an _ and/or a _ type of memory function).
The _ is perched on top of the brain stem in the
diencephalon
(btwn mid- and fore-brain).

Think: brain stem is a tree for the _ bird.
The THALAMUS

(Is located where precisely?)
The Basil Ganglia stores _ (a specific kind of) memories;

both _ and _.

Think: Freud and Hunters (Huntington's) love to eat basal!
UNCONSCIOUS memories

Procedural and Implicit.

(What stores this?)

Hint: Freud and Hunter's love to eat this; it also looks like your headphones.
ST memory is associated with
neuro_ changes at existing synapses;

While LT mem is associated w
a _ change of existing synapses along w/ an _.
neuroCHEMICAL change at existing synapses.
(what kind of mem assoc. w this?)

STRUCTURAL change along w/ an INCREASE in # !!!
(what's assoc w/ this?)
This is when...

The high RESPONSIVITY of a postsynaptic neuron to low INTENSITY STIMULATION by a presynaptic neuron for hrs/days/wks/etc. after the presynpatic neuron was barraged by high FREQUENCY STIMULATION, leading to LT memory!
Long-Term Potentiation

(Is from what lengthy process? And what does it lead to?)
What mediates LT MEMORY?
(3 things)

1. LT _
2. _ synthesis
3. _ gene
1. LT Potentiation

2. Protein Synthesis

3. ApoE4 gene

(Are all involved in what?)
LT Potentiation is found in
the _, _, and _.
(3 specific parts of the brain).
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Cortex

(What mechanism occurs in all 3 of these places?)
What does LT potentiation change STRUCTURALLY in the brain?

(3 changes)
1. SHAPE of dendrites

2. NEW synaptic connections.

3. INCREASES # of gluatamate receptors.

(What process does these?)
LT memory depends on the enhancement of _ during the minutes-to-hours following learning.
Protein Synthesis

(When is this needed and for what purpose?)
This gene is linked to Altz, increasing it's risk!
ApoE4

(increases the risk of what disease?)
These genes DECREASE the risk of Altz?
ApoE2 and ApoE3

(In what condition are they linked to and in what way?)
6 universal emotions:

f a h d s s

Think: 3 and 3
fear, surprise, disgust

happiness, sadness, and anger
The theory that our emo' are only perceptions of bodily reactions.

A. James-Lang,
B. Cannon-Bard, or
C. Schachter's 2 factor?

*what research supports this?
A. James-Lange

*Research: supports - paraplegics
What theory states that emotions and our reactions to stimuli occur simultaneously?

A. James-Lang,
B. Cannon-Bard, or
C. Schachter's 2 factor?

*what the research says...
B. Cannon-Bard

*Research: body reactions are similar for varied emotions.
What theory states that we can both experience emo' as a part of a bodily reaction (James-Lange)
AND
can experience emo' and reactions to stimuli simultaneously (Cannon-Bard)?

*Research supporting this?
Schachter's 2 Factor theory

Research: epinephrine study!
What brain parts regulate
("HAC" into)
emotion?
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Cerebral cortex
In re: Emo'

The Amygdala

(determines what?)
The EMOTIONAL IMPORTANCE

(is determined by what brain part?)

It answers questions like, "Is this dangerous?" or "Am I in love?
In re: Emo'

The Hypothalamus

(does what?)
TRANSLATES emo' into PHYSICAL responses!

It also allows us to FOCUS -with the aid of the ANS and the Pituitary Gland.

(What brain part does this?)
Damage to the L/R Cerebral cortex can = feelings of indifference or inappropriate jokes.
RIGHT cerebral cortex damage

(can = feelings of _ or _).

Think: what happens when Right-wings slip?
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome
(GAS)

states:
1. _ (the 3 steps "ARE a GAS" :-)

2. If stressed; then _ sick? B/c of chronic _ (Which causes low _ and_).

3. Type A assoc w/ _?
1. Ppl respond to stress relatively the SAME: Alarm - Resistance - Exhaustion.

2. TWICE likely to get sick under stress b/c chronin, high CORTISOL = low Lymphocytes and T cells.

3. Type A assoc w/ increase HEALTH problems, esp HEART attacks in men.
What influences the development of sex organs, and later behavior?
Hormones
The pituitary gland releases _ hormones (sex hormones).
Gonadotropic!

(What glad releases these?)
In the ovaries _ and _ are produced.

In the Testes, _, _, and _ are produced.
Estrogen and Progesterone

Androgens: Testosterone, and Androstedione.
1. Sex hormones are activating stuff in the _ to _ old fetus?

2. This includes: subsequent development due to _ exposure in middle-third tri.
1. 6 to 8 weeks:

2. ANDROGEN
For the male genitalia, fetus must be stimulated by _ during the critical period:
ANDROGEN; middle-third tri
If female fetus exposed to _ during critical period, then _
ANDROGEN; "TomBoyish" bhvr

*w/o homosexuality!
Puberty is marked by _ and activation of the _ system?
2ndary Sex characteristics

Reproductive
Puberty is stimulated by the _ (brain), which in turn stimulates the _ gland.
Hypothalamus --> Pituitary gland
In puberty, _ stimulates sperm in the testies and ovulation in the ovaries.
GONADAL hormones
M/F not as affected by hormone levels, but this hormone is more effective in restoring arousal and orgasm?
Woman; Androgen
Viagra works directly on _, not _!
Penis Tissue, not hormones!
Sexual Dimorphism is...
...differences in appearance due to one's sex.

(what is?)
Is the brain sexually dimorphic?
YUP!

(What's sexually dimorphic?)
Sleep:

_ = Alert!
_ = Awake, rested, relaxed
_ = Relaxation
_ = Deep sleep
Beta (for Bet your ass I'm awake!)

Alpha (alpha females are always on guard, but cool...)

Theta (Thinking in _ state).

Delta (is for Dead tired).
Stages of Sleep and WAVES
1. _
2. _, then bursts of _ and _
3. _ appears
4. _ dominates, increased _
5. _, AKA "_" sleep b/c _?
1. Theta

2. Theta; spindles and K-complexes bursts!

3. Delta appears

4. Delta dominates; muscle activity! (sleep walk, nite terror)

5. REM= "paradoxical" sleep b/c WAVES like 1 and 2, yet you're deeply relaxed!
Broca's controls:

expressive or receptive?
motor or cognitive?
fluent or non-fluent?
Expressive
Motor
Non-fluent

(Wrnke or Brca's area?)
Broca's is located in the L/R _ lobe?
L Frontal

(is Wrnke or Brca's area there?)
Damage to _ can result in Anomia.
Broca's

~and aware of problem -->dep~

(This is caused by damage to what area?)
Trouble w/ repetition can be an indication of damage to _ area?
Broca's

(One indication is trouble w/ _?)
Wernike's controls

Expressive or Receptive?
Sensory or Motor?
Fluent or Non-fluent?
Receptive
Sensory
Fluent
Wernike's in located in the L/R _.
L Temporal
Damage to Wernike's can = _

(but also problems w/ _ and _)
Paraphasia

(repetition and anomia)

(from damage to _ area?)
CONDUCTION refers to...
(If a conductor were to orchestrate)
...the connection between Wernike's and Broca's alone.

(what is this called?)
In re: Broca's and Wernike's

Conduction effects (2 things), but not (1 thing).
Anomia and Repetition

but NOT comprehension!
In re: Broca's and Wernike's

Transcortical is the...
...probelms between Broca/Wernike and
OTHER AREAS of the brain!

(What's this called?)
You are...

If both Wernike's and Broca's are isolated, then _ (it's called):

Where you...(3 things)
...then you're fucked.

Mixed Transcortical Aphasia!

1. When you CAN TALK, but ya ain't got nuthen to say!

2. You can repeat, but you don't understand!

3. And you annoy ppl w/ autonomic responses, such as humming familiar Brittany Spears tunes. Or maybe "The Wheels on the Bus" or something.
Open- and Closed-head injuries are both categorized as _.
Cerebral Trauma.

(includes what 2 things?)
In closed head injuries, _ is common due to the "coup-countercoup" likelihood.
Coma

(common in open-/closed-head?)
_ is characterized by "shrinking retrograde amnesia" where REMOTE memories return first.
Post-Trauma Amnesia (PTA)

(is characterized by "shrinking _ amnesia" where _ memories return first?)
Post-concussional Syndrome is characterized by... (bunch of stuff)

Occurs in _% w/ mild TBI.
...dizziness, headache, nausea, blurred vision, drowsiness, etc.

(These may be Sx of _.)
With a PTA (post Trauma Amnesia) from a closed-head injury, the greatest amount of recovery occurs within _.

And after that, within the _.

Recovery is best among _ functions, but not so much w/ _ (2 other) functions.
First 3 mo;
First Year

*Cognitive = better;
**Social and Personality = less recovery.

(Referring to what kind of Amnesia?)
Cerebral Stroke
(3 causes?)

Hint: THE causes are?
Thrombosis (blood blocked artery).

Embolism (material blocked artery).

Hemorrhage (brain bleed)

(These can all cause a _)
The Sx of a cerebral stroke depend on...(2 things)
Location

and

Severity!

(These influence Sx of a _)
Homonymous Hemianopia is...
Visual field loss!

(What's a long name for this?)
If stroke in L-hemisphere,
then _ and _.

If R-hemisphere,
then _ and _ apraxia.

(Bhvrl stuff, not asking emo' changes)
Aphasia & Apraxia
(If stroke on L/R hemisphere?)

Neglect & DRESSING aphasia
(If stroke on L/R hemisphere?)
Name 2 disorders of movement.
Huntington's and Parkinson's
(Are disorders of _ )
Huntington's

1. Is inherited from a _ gene.

2. Dx usually btwn age _and_.

3. Eventual _.
1. Single-DOMINANT gene
*offspring = 50% likely!

2. Age 30 - 50

3. Dementia

(What disease is this describing?)
Parkinson's

1. Is from low _.

2. (+) Sx's = _ (2); (--) = _ (2)

3. Tx that helps is...
1. Low Dopamine (assoc)

2. Tremor & akathisia (+);
Mask-like, bradykinesis (--)

3. Inject L-Dopa into Basil Ganglia cells for Tx.

(What disease is this describing?)
Seizures are divided into two main categories:
General (tonic-clonic; absence)
and
Partial (simple, complex, location)
Another name for this "general" seizure called TONIC-CLONIC.

It's characterized by muscle CONTRACTION, then SHAKING - depression and confusion.
AKA Grand-mal

(another name; what Sx characterize it?).

Hint: sounds like a grand drink!
Another name for this "general" seizure called ABSENCE.

It's characterized by NO MOTOR Sx, just a blank stare and eye-blinking.
AKA Petite-mal

(another name; what Sx characterizes it?)

Think: petite ppl should avoid.
A General Seizure:

(symmetrical or asymmetrical)
...is SYMMETRICAL, no focal onset!

(What category of seizures?)
Name the General Seizures.
Tonic-clonic (Grand-mal)
and
Absence (Petite-mal)

(What types of seizures are these?)
Partial Seizures:

are symmetrical or asymmetrical?
...are ASYMMETRICAL

(What category of seizures?)

Think: of course they are asymmetrical cause only part of the brain is affected!
Name the Partial Seizures:
Simple
Complex
This Partial Seizure is characterized by NO loss of consciousness.
Simple

(What type of seizure?)
This Partial Seizure is characterized by at least SOME alteration in consciousness.
Complex

(What type of seizure?)
These seizure's Sx depend on it's LOCATION.
Partial

(Sx depend on what?)
A simple partial seizure will often be a precursor to a larger seizure such as a complex partial seizure, or a tonic-clonic seizure. When this is the case, the simple partial seizure is usually called an _.
AURA

(What constitutes the name of this seizure?)

PS: taken from Wikipedia, Dec 2010
What type of seizure is most common in

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?
PARTIAL

(Is the most common seizure in what disorder?)
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy :

Sx include...(3 things).
Lip smacking

Hallucinations

Emo' changes
Multiple Sclerosis is from...

(It's a disease of the _; a _ response where it...)
...the degeneration of Myelin Sheath. A disease of the nervous system.

It's an auto-immune response where it attacks it's own myelin.
MS can be triggered by:

(3 things)
Genetics
Viral infections
Environmental factors!

(All triggers for what disease?)
MS is more common in _, with onset btwn the ages of _.
Women

20-40
There are several types of MS, but the most common type (nearly 80%) is _.
Relapse-Remitting

(What is this referring to?)
Lhermittes Sign refers to _ and is characterized by _
MS

An electric sensation running down the back of one's legs.

(What is this Sx called?)
What is a psycho-physiological disorder?
A physical disorder/problem where the physical Sx are CAUSED, MAINTAINED, or WORSENED, by psychological stuff.

( This is a _ disorder)
Hyperventilation:

Occurs after a drop in _, causing respiratory _ and cerebral _.
drop Carbon Dioxide

respiratory Alkalosis
and
Cerebral hypoxia (low oxygen)

(What is this?)
Name two types of Hypertension:

1. _: %? Dx when _.
2. _: is related to a _.
1. Primary
- most common (80-90%);
- Dx when one has high blood pressure for NO KNOWN CAUSE!
(AKA Essential Hypertension)

2. Secondary
-related to a KNOWN Disease.

(What are these?)
Hypertension is more common in _?
Men and African Americans

(What's a problem that's more common for men and AA?)
Hypertension, Hyperventilation, Fibro, Migraine Headaches, and PMS are all considered _ disorders.
Psycho-physiological disorders!

(Can you name 5?)
Fibro is more common in _ and usually Dx in _.
Women
Middle-age
Migraine Headaches are linked to _ (low or high) levels of _.
LOW Serotonin!
In re: Migraine Headaches:

a. _% get Aura first.
b. Tx w/ _?
In re: Migraine Headaches:

a. 12%
b. Anti-inflammatory drug (Tx)
A CLUSTER headache can last from _ to _.
1 day to 3-4 months!

(What kind of migraine headache?)
A TENSION headache:

1. is usually non-_.
2. often caused by _.
1. NON-throbbing
2. DILATION of blood vessels

(What kind of migraine headache?)
A SINUS headache is characterized by _.
Pressure/pain over the NOSE and EYES.

(What kind of migraine headache?)
In PMS, Sx include aspects that are both _ and _; in fact, _ is common!
emotional and physical Sx

food cravings too!

(What is?)
1. PMS is related to _ hormones.

2. _% experience some form of PMS, whereas _% meet full criteria!
1. Ovarian

2. 75%; 20-50%
In re: PMS

_% = Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
3-5 % PMS

(Meet criteria for _ Dx?)
What Tx's shown effective for PMS:

(3 Tx)
Placebos

also Cog-bhvrl and SSRI's

(effective Tx for what?)
The Endocrine System consist of _ that produce _, that in turn activate either _ or _.
GLANDS that produce HORMONES that in turn activate either

ENZYMES or NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

(What system does this?)
3 main parts of the Endocrine System are:
Pituitary gland

Thyroid gland

Pancreas

(These make up what bodily system?)
The Pituitary Gland is AKA the _.

It secretes 2 hormones, which are...

1. _ --> To the Kidneys
2. _ --> To the Muscles/Bone
The MASTER gland (AKA)

1. Antidiuretic --> _ (organ?)
2. Somatograph --> _
(hint: can cause dwarfism or giantism.

(What bodily system to these belong to and what organs/body parts do they effect?)
ACROMEGDALY is a disorder of the _ System.

It is characterized by _ body parts.
Endocrine System

ENLARGED hands, feet, and facial features.

(Name a disorder of this system)
The THYROID gland:

a. Releases _, regulating GENERAL METABOLISM.

b. Hyperthyroid is AKA _

c. Hypothyroid can cause _.
a. THYROXINE, which regulates _

b. (AKA) Graves Disease

c. Depression, weight gain, etc

(What are GLAD controls these conditions and what are the names of these conditions?)
The PANCREAS:

a. Releases _, causing _.

b. Hypoglycemia is from a _ pancreas.

c. Diabetes Mellitus is from a _ pancreas.
a. Releases INSULIN, causing a reuptake of GLUCOSE and AMINO ACIDS.

b. _ is when the _ is HYPERactive.

c. _ is when it's HYPOactive.
DIABETES MELLITUS, from a hypoactive Pancreas, displays Sx such as:

a. Decreased/increased appetite with weight gain/loss?

b. Mental _.
(What disease is this?)

a. INCREASED appetite with weight LOSS!

b. Mental DULLNESS.
***

What NT is associated with Depression and Mania in abnormal amounts?

Is it too much or too little or both?
5HT

Too LITTLE
(can cause both Depression or Mania)
What NT is associated w/ Autism in abnormal amounts?
5HT
OCD can be from too _ of this NT?
Too LITTLE

5HT

(Also, reduces Norep')
Too _ of this NT can be involved in Autism
Too MUCH

5HT
What NT especially mediates Seizure activity?
GABA

(too little)
Tourette's can be from too _ of this NT?
Too MUCH Dop!

(and Schizo' too)
Too _ of this NT can be related to Depression, Parkinson's, and ADHD?
Too LITTLE Dop!
Parkinson's is associated with too _ of this NT?
Too LITTLE Dop!
Too much of this is related to Sx of Mania and/or schizo'

but too little is associated with depression and OCD!?
Norep'
PET scans are when you inject _ shit into your head and they can measure these 3 things:
Radioactive shit

blood flow
glucose metabolism
oxygen
The advantage of a SPECT over a PET is that it is _ and _, but the downfall is that it _ than the SPECT?
SPECT = Easier and Cost effective!

But, less detail

(You get what you PET for, hehe)
fMRI's measure (1) _?
Metabolic Activity

(MRI - magnetic fields)
CT uses _ to measure these 4 things:
X-RAY

Blood clots,
Tumors,
Mltp Sclerosis,
Alzheimer's
DysPROSody means...
Disturbance in stress, pitch, or rhythm of speech.
Chorea
rapid and jerky movements of the trunk, limbs, etc. assoc w/ Huntington's.
Bradykinesia is...
Slowness of movement!
Athetosis is...
Slow writhing movements

(Parkinson's)
Anosognosia
Don't recognize your own neurological Sx!
Prosopagnosia
Don't recognize familiar faces!
Mask-like

hand tremor

Increased rigidity

Reduced voluntary movements

(What is this???)
Parkinsonism
The HINDBRAIN consists of these 2 structures:
Medulla
(vital functions)

Cerebellum
(voluntary: balance and posture)
also proprioception, but i thought that was the parietal lobe?