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230 Cards in this Set

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The duration of post-traumatic amnesia:
a. is unrelated to the severity of the injury
b. is useful as an indicator of severity only when combined with the degree of retrograde amnesia
c. is less accurate as an indicator of severity than the degree of retrograde amnesia
d. is more accurate as an indicator of severity than the degree of retrograde amnesia.
d. is more accurate as an indicator of severity than the degree of retrograde amnesia
Disturbances in the ability to respond to stimulation on one side of the body is suggestive of damage to the:

a. right parietal lobe
b. right frontal lobe
c. anterior cerebellum
d. posterior pons
a. right parietal lobe
A psychologist wants to determine the relationship between number of years as a substance abuser and number of weeks in an inpatient tx facility. The psychologist will use which of the following:

a. MANOVA
b. ANOVA
c. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
d. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance
c. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
The psychologist in the last study plans to use the information she has collected to predict the number of aftercare sesssions patients will require. The appropriate technique in this situation is:

a. Regression analysis

B. Multiple regression analysis

c. Discriminant analysis

d. Canonical correlation
b. multiple regression analysis
In primary school, ability tracking:

a. has beneficial effects on the achievement of high, moderate, and low achieving students

b. has no effect on the achievment of high, moderate, or low achieving students

c. has detrimental effects on the achievement of high, moderate, and low achieving students

d. has different effects on achievment for students of different ability levels
d. has different effects on achievement for students of different ability levels
Research investigating father-child attachment suggests that it depends most on:

a. nurturance
b. authority
c. play activities
d. maternal absence
c. play activities
Characteristics such as level of emotionality, activity, and sociability:

a. are evident in newborns and remain relatively stable in later years.

b. are evident in newborns but are not predictive of future behavior

c. begin to appear as traits after the first year of life

d. do not become stable until the preschool years
a. are evident in newborns and remain relatively stable in later years.
Hans Eysenck's (1952) article about the effectiveness of psychotherapy reported little benefit of psychotherapy beyond what would be expected from spontaneous remission. Subsequent researchers have reviewed the literature, and their meta-analysis have yielded:

a. a different pattern of results - there are benefits to psychotherapy

b. a different pattern of results - psychotherapy produces deterimental effects

c. A similar pattern of results - there is no benefit to psychotherapy

d. no conclusion
a. a different pattern of results - there are benefits to psychotherapy
A depressed patient is concerned that taking an antidepressant will produce sedation and interfere with his ability to perform his job and cause him to put on unwanted weight. In this case, the best drug would be:

a. an MAOI

b. A TCA

c. an SSRI

d. an NSAID
c. an SSRI
According to Piaget, the source of motivation for cognitive development is:

a. social acceptance

b. parental influence

c. equilibration

d. the collective unconscious
c. equilibration
A therapist in New York decides to use cuento therapy in her work with elementary school children whose parents are Puerto Rican immigrants. She collects several Puerto Rican folktales and modifies them to make them apply to the innter city environment in which the children live. This practice is:

a. suspect because the true meaning of the stories will be lost

b. a form of American ethnocentrism

c. effective based on the research
c. effective based on research
12. Damage to the hippocampus is most likely to interfere with the ability to:

a. recall remote events

b. recall events stored in recent long-term memory

c. transfer short-term memory to long-term memory

d. retrieve implicit memories
c. transfer short-term memory to long-term memory
The left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is dominant for speech and language functions:

a. for most left-handers but few right-handers

b. for nearly all left-handers and many right-handers

c. for nearly all right-handers and the majority of left-handers

d. for nearly all right-handers but a small minority of left-handers
c. for nearly all right-handers and the majority of left-handers
The symptoms of numbness, weakness, tremor, and ataxia that characterize multiple sclerosis are due to:

a. lesions in the basal ganglia

b. demyelination

c. loss of ACh receptors

d. cerebellar atrophy
b. demyelination
In recent years, psychologists have attempted to become more sensitive to the uniqueness of each culture. this is most related to a(n):

a. emic approach

b. etic approach

c. etic-emic synthesis

d. neither an etic nor emic approach
a. emic approach
According to Chomsky, the human capacity to acquire language is:

a. entirely due to environmental factors

b. an innate property

c. consistent with a behaviorist position

d. like a blank slate
b. an innate property
REM deprivation has been found to relieve depression in some patients, leading to the hypothesis that REM sleep is accompanied by:

a. a decrease in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine

b. a decease in brain levels of melatonin

c. an increase in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine

d. an increase in brain levels of melatonin
a. Depression is associated with deficiencies of serotonin and norepinephrine. If depression is improved by depriving a person of REM sleep, this implies that REM sleep is also associated with low levels of these neurotransmitters.
A brief period of electrical stimulation of the hippocampus enhances nerve cell electrical activity in that area of the brain for minutes to hours. This is referred to as:

a. graded potentiation

b. hyperpolarization

c. absolute refractory period

d. long-term potentiation
d. long-term potentiation
Past research has shown that females show superior verbal skills compared to males. More recently, the research has found that this difference is:

a. reversing

b. increasing

c. decreasing

d. remaining constant
c. decreasing
Which of the following imaging techniques would be used to obtain a "metabolic map" of the brain during various mental and physical activities:

a. CT

b. PET

c. MRI

d. NMR
b. PET scans provide information on the functions of the brain (e.g., metabolic functions)
Which of the following would be a cause of conductive deafness:

a. infection of the middle ear

b. damage to the hair cells

c. cochlear damage

d. lesions in the auditory cortex
a. infection of the middle ear
In Piaget's model of cognitive development, which stage is associated with the development of object permanence?

a. sensorimotor stage

b. preoperational stage

c. concrete operational stage

d. formal operational stage
a. sensorimotor stage
Brain lateralization begins to develop by:

a. the first year of life

b. the second year of life

c. the third year of life

d. the age of 5
a. the first year of life
Research on attraction suggests that we are most likely to join a group when members are:

a. similar in terms of attitudes and ability

b. dissimilar in terms of attitudes and ability

c. similar in terms of attitude but diverse in terms of ability
d. diverse in terms of attitude but similar in terms of ability
a. similar in terms of attitudes and ability
As people interact and carry out tasks with one another, their beliefs and expectations tend to converge into a common perspective. This fact was demonstrated by which of the following studies:

a. Sherif's Robber's Cave study

b. sherif's autokinetic effect studies

c. Snyder's behavioral conformity study

d. rosenhan's pseudopatient study
b. Sherif's autokinetic effect studies
You've noticed that when you go to the dentist and are very anxious, the pain of the drill is much worse than when you're able to remain calm and relaxed. This phenomenon is best explained by which of the following:

a. minimum threshold theory

b. gate control theory

c. signal detection theory

d. pattern theory
b. gate control theory
When you first go to bed, close your eyes, and relax, your brain emits regular high-amplitude, low frequency:

a. beta waves

b. delta waves

c. theta waves

d. alpha waves
d. alpha waves
"Group polarization" occurs when:

a. group members are split in their solution to a problem

b. group members make riskier decisions as a group than they would have as individuals

c. group members make more extreme decisions (riskier or conservative) as a group than they would have as individuals

d. group members are encouraged to think alike and all dissent is discouraged
c. group members make more extreme decisions (riskier or conservative) as a group than they would have as individuals
A woman who suffers from recurrent migraines should be advised to:

a. take an assertiveness training class

b. determine if certain foods precede her headaches

c. avoid becoming chilled

d. perform relaxation exercises immediately following stressful events
b. determine if certain foods precede her headaches
Research investigating the effects of examinee race on the performance of African-American children on IQ tests suggests that:

a. the performance of African-American children is significantly suppressed when the examiner is Whiet

b. the performance of African-American children is significantly improved when the examiner is African-American

c. the performance of African-American children is enhanced somewhat when the examiner is White and clearly unbiased

d. the performance of African-American children is affected more by the examiner's testing experience (especially with African-American children) than by his or her race
d. the performance of African-American children is affected more by the examiner's testing experience
Difficulties in concentration, forgetfulness, sensitivity to cold, unexplained weight gain, and constipation are symptomatic of:

a. pernicious anemia

b. hyperadrenalixm

c. hypoglycemia

d. hypothyroidism
d. hypothyroidism
Researchers interested in locus of control distinguish between individuals who have an internal locus of control and individuals who have an external locus of control. Which of the following is not true about the difference between "internals" and "externals""

a. internals are more likely than externals to view class differences as being due to a lack of effort on the part of members of the lower class.

b. following a natural disaster, internals exhibit greater frustration and anxiety than externals because the cause and effects of disaster are out of their control

c. among institutionalized elderly adults, externals tend to exhibit better adjustment than internals, while the opposite is true among non-institutionalized elderly adults

d. as students, internals are more likely than externals to consult with their instructors before a class exam
b. following a natural disaster, internals exhibit greater frustration and anxiety than externals becuase the cause and effects of the disaster are out of their control
Development of which of the following interest tests involve comparing the responses of people working in various occupations with those of "people in general""

a. SCII

b. MMPI

c. Kuder OIS

d. Holland's SDS
A. SCII
Which of the following outcomes is not predicted by cognitive dissonance theory:

a. a college student who is subjected to a difficult and painful initiation into a fraternity is likely to resent the other members

b. a gambler who loses all his money will say he gambles for the fun of it

c. a person who breaks his arm playing football will say that broken bones are not that painful

d. a person paid $2.50 an hour for stuffing envelopes will rate the task as more pleasant than a person paid $10.00 an hour for doing the same task
a. a college student who is subjected to a difficult and painful initiation into a fraternity is likely to resent the other members
If an adult takes phenobarbital every night for six weeks and then abruptly stops taking the drug, what will be the likely result:

a. she will not experience any change in REM sleep

b. she will experience an increase in REM sleep
c. she will experience a decrease in REM sleep

d. she will experience an increased need for sleep
b. she will experience an increase in REM sleep
A social psychologist finds, in his study designed to assess the effect of therapy fees on satisfaction with therapy, that clients who have to work overtime or get a second job to pay for therapy generally express grater satisfaction than wealthy clients, clients whose insurance covers most of their fee, or clients who are receiving therapy for free or at low cost. This finding provides support for which of the following:

a. the overjustification hypothesis

b. cognitive dissonance theory

c. the approach-avoidance conflict

d. equity theory
b. cognitive dissonance theory
Research investigating the impact of maternal employment on parent-child interactions has shown that mothers who are employed full-time:

a. describe their sons and daughters more favorably than mothers who are unemployed

b. describe their sons and daughters more negatively than mothers who are unemployed

c. describe only their sons more positively than mothers who are unemployed

d. describe only their daughters more positively than mothers who are unemployed
d. describe only their daughters more positvely than mothers who are unemployed
The "catecholamine hypothesis" predicts that drugs which........ will alleviate depression:

a. decrease norepinephrine levels

b. maintain or increase norepinephrine levels

c. decrease epinephrine levels

d. maintain or increase epinephrine levels
b. maintain or increase norepinephrine levels
Antisocial behavior and later delinquency have been associated with:

a. an authoritatian parenting style and consistent physical discipline

b. an authoritatian parenting style and inconsistent, excessive discipline

c. a laissez-faire parenting style and inconsistent warmth and concern

d. a lassez-faire parenting style and harsh, inconsistent discipline
d. a laissez-faire parenting style and harsh, inconsistent discipline
The venom of the black widow spider is believed to cause violent and uncontrollable muscle contractions by affecting the activity of which of the following neurotransmitters:

a. acetylcholine

b. norepinephrine

c. enkephalin
a. acetylcholine
You are a community psychologist working with two rival gangs. Which of the following represents the intervention that is most likely to decrease the hostility between members of the groups:

a. talk to them about the different theories of agression so that they understand the processes behind their actions

b. have the gangs organize a protest against police brutality in their neighborhood

c. give each group false information about the other group

d. give each group no information about the other group
b. have the gangs organize a protest against policy brutality in their neighborhood
As a projective test, the Bender-Gestalt is most commonly used as a:

a. nonverbal measure of intelligence

b. nonverbal measure of personality

d. screening device for organicity

d. screening device for learning disabilities
b. nonverbal measure of personality
In a study examining affiliation, experimental subjects are told that they will be receiving a series of electric shocks. Subjects are then given the opportunity to either wait alone, wait with other students who will be participating in the same experiment, or wait with other students who are merely waiting to see their faculty advisors. Results of the study will most likely confirm the hypothesis that
misery loves miserable company
In early adolescence, behavioral and emotional problems are most often related to:

a. family events

b. peer events

c. academic events

d. physiological changes
a. family events
Neurotransmiters are known to be involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another, and, in recent years, investigators have identified the specific functions of some neurotransmitters. For example, it is believed that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine:

a. activates skeletal muscles and is involved in volutary movements

b. decreases alertness and hastens the onset of sleep

c. is implicated in the development of schizophrenia and other mental disorders

d. is involved in the control of pain and stress
a. activates skeletal muscles and is involved in voluntary movements.
! 35-year old woman is being treated by a psychiatrist and is taking medication for her disorder. At a party, after eating some aged cheese and drinking some wine, the woman develops an extreme headache. A friend drives her to the emergency room of a local hospital where the doctor finds the woman to have extremely elevated blood pressure. The woman is apparently taking which of the following drugs:

a. a tricyclic

b. lithium

c. an MAO inhibitor

d. chlorpromazine
c. an MAO inhibitor
Generally speaking, as an objective test, the Bender-Gestalt is most useful for identifying which of the following:

a. damage to the left hemisphere

b. damage to the right hemisphere

c. bilateral temporal lobe lesions

d. diffuse brain damage
b. damage to the right hemisphere
Behavioral assessment is distinguished from traditional assessment in several ways. Which of the following is not a characteristic associated with behavioral assessment:

a. focuses on directly observable behaviors and environmental factors

b. views outward behaviors as signs of an individual's underlying characteristics

c. involves assessing behaviors repeatedly throughout the course of the intervention

d. involves assessing specifid (rather than global) aspects of the individual's behaviors
b. views outward behaviors as signs of an individual's underlying characteristics
In terms of gender differences, the research has found all of the following to be true except:

a. males are more likely than females to respond negatively (e.g., aggressively) to crowded situations

b. males are more likely to be "task leaders." whiile females are more likely to "social leaders"

c. in conversations, males are more likely than females to interrupt

d. men's opinions of themselves are more affected by negative evaluations by others, while women's opinions are more affected by positive evaluations
d. men's opinions of themselves are more affected by negative evaluations by others, while women's opinions are more affected by positive evaluations
Research investigating the relationship between interest test scores and future occupational choice suggests that these tests have the highest predictive validity for:

a. lower-class people

b. middle-class people

c. upper-class people

d. lower and upper class people
b. middle-class people
Bandura and the Social Learning theorists say

a. reinforcement is necessary for learning itself
b. the most efficient way to bet behavior is by shaping
c. reinforcement facilitates but is not necessary for learning
d. reinforcement has nothing to do with learning
c. Bandura believed that individuals could learn a bx merely by observing a model perform that behavior. although he did not believe reinforcemtn was necessary for learning, he felt that it influenced a variety of factors related to it, such which models to attend to and when to display learning.
3. Imprinting illustrates

a. that, due to "biological preparedness," some behaviors are learned rather easily
b. that some behaviors can occur without learning
c. normal classical conditioning
d. a type of learning taking place at any developmental stage
B. imprinting is the very rapid acquisition of species id and affection for the first moving obj seen during an early "sensitive period" of development. It occurs automatically in response to movement and without any conditioning. It illustrates that some behaviors occur without any conditioning or learning taking place.
4. Tolman demonstrated

a. that learning can be latent with reinforcement
b. that learning can be latent without reinforcement
c. that learning cannot occur without reinforcement
d. that learning is not a matter of cognitions
B. In Tolman's exp, rats were allowed to roam a maze for about 10 days. They did not show any signs of learning the maze during this period. However, on the 11th day, when food was placed in the goal-gox, the rats ran the maze with relative ease. The rat's learning was termed "latent" becuase it wasn't displayed until reinforcement was introduced. The experiment illustrated that, though reinforcement may be necessary for performance, it isnot necessary for learning.
5. In classical conditioning, extinction refers to

a. presentation of the CS without the US
b. the absence of a reward
c. that learning cannot occur without reinforcement
d. that learning is not a matter of cognitions
A. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with a stimulus (US) that automatically elicits a response, until the CS comes to elicit the same response as the US. To extinguish this contitioned response, one would present the CS without the US. For ex, in Pavlov's experiments, meat powder (US) was paired with a bell (CS) until the bell elicited salivation. Extinction would involve ringing the bell without presenting the meat powder; eventually, the dog would stop salivating in response to the bell.
6. The tendency to fear any white furry object after being frightened in the presence of a white rat demonstrates

a. operant conditioning
b. response generalization
c. stimulus generalization
d. escape learning
C. In classical conditioning, stimulus generalization occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS elicits the CR. In the question, the white rat is the CS and fear is the CR. A fear of furry objects in this case would represent a generalization of the fear of the CS to other similar stimuli.
7. A discrimination task which is too difficult for the subject to solve

a. produces generalization
b. results in extinction
c. produces secondary conditioning
d. may produce experimental neurosis
D. In class conditioning, stimulus discrimination is the process of distinguishing between similar stimuli so that a conditioned response (CR) is displayed in the presence of oly the conditioned stimulus (CS), and not when similar stimuli are presented. In one experiment, dogs were conditioned to salivate in response to a circle but not in response to an ellipse. Then the figures were made more similar, until they almost became identical. The dogs began to display signs of emotional disturbance.... termed "experimental neurosis."
8. Punishment will
a. reduce aggression
b. suppress aggression
c. eliminate aggression
d. have no effect on aggression
B. as a bx technique, punishment has the disadvantage of failing to eliminate or permanently reduce a behavior. Instead, it temporarily suppresses a behavior, as evidened by the fact that, after the punishment is discontinued, the behavior returns to baseline levels.
9. If time-out is used in the classroom, the best results will occur if

a. the time outside is not reinforcing in itself
b. the time outside is long enough to allow the unacceptable behaviors to extinguish
c. the procedure does not inhibit acceptable behaviors as well
d. it is contingent upon the student's expectations that it will be a consequence of his misbehavior
A. A potential prob with the time-out technique is that sometimes itself may be reinforcing.
10. The technique of "stress inoculation" involves
a. education, behaviora rehearsal, and applied practice.
b. exposure of an individual to a feared stimulus outside the presence of an unconditioned stimulus
c. activity scheduling and mastery and pleasure reating
d. the pairing of an anxiety response with an incompatible relaxation response.
A. stress inoculation technique - consists of 3 steps: education as to how faulty cogntions prevent appropriate and adaptive coping; rehearsal of new coping skills; and practice applying these skills to real and/or hypothetical situations.
11. Studies on child abuse have shown that abused children often cling to their abusive parents. From a behavioral perspective, this phenomenon can be accounted for by

a. classical conditioning
b. imprinting
c. reinforcement on a variable ratio schedule
d. reinforcement on a continuous schedule
11. C. usu the abuse is explosive and unpredictable. The behavior is reinforced on a variable ratio schedule.... and is highly resistant to extinction, which may explain why children continue to cling to their abusive parents
wHICH OF THE FOLLOWING COMBINES CLASSICAL EXTINCTION WITH PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY?

a. drive theory
b. implosive therapy
c. flooding
d. graded participant modeling
12. B. Implosive therapy involves a combination of classical extinction and psychoanalytic techniques. The person is imaginally exposed to a feared stimulus (CS) without any adverse consequences (US); this is class extinction. In addition, the images of the feared stimulus are embelished in a manner consistent with what are believed to be the underlying psychodynamic reasons for the fear.
13. Negative reinforcement
a. is usu the same thing as punishment
b. decreases operant behaviors
c. increases operant behaviors
d. involves presenting aversive consequences
C. Negative reinforcement involves removal of a stimulus in order to increase the strength of an operant response. Some candidates get confused about this concept because of the word negative. In this context, negative does not mean bad or aversive; isntead it means that a stimulus is removed.
14. Gambling illustrates which of the following schedules of reinforcement?

a. variable interval
b. variable ratio
c. fixed interval
d. fixed ratio
B. In gambling, reinforcement occurs after a variable number of responses.
15. Mowrer's two-factor theory has been proposed to explain avoidance behavior. The two factors basically represent

a. escape conditioning and positive reinforcement
b. avoidance conditioning and positive reinforcement
c. escape conditioning and negative reinforcement
d. avoidance conditioning and negative reinforcement
D. According to Mowrer's theory, avoidance behavior can be explained in the folowing manner: 1) the individual learns to avoid stimuli that have been paired with aversive consequences (avoidance conditioning); and 2) this avoidance behavior is maintained because it is reinforced by the termination of anxiety (negative reinforcement).
16. In an operant learning experiment, a pigeon gets rewarded for pecking when a red light is flashed but is not rewarded for pecking when a green light is flashed. The red light is

a. a US
b. an S-Delta
c. a discriminative stimulus
d. generalizing stimulus
C. A discriminative stimulus is a cue which signals that reinforcement will follow the performance of a particular response. In this case, th red light signals that reinforcement will follow the pecking response.
17. An irritated mother complains that her daughter is a stupid slob. The complaints seem to cause the daughter to leave her room even messier. The mother's behavior would be considered to be a

a. negative reinforcer
b. punishment
c. discriminative stimulus
d. positive reinforcer
D. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when applied, inceases the frequency of a behavior, or the probability of its occurrence.
18. Behavioral contrast

a. is similar to generalization
b. involves response rates moving in the same direction
c. is found only in animals
d. can be a problem in attempting to stop undesirable behavior
D. When an operant bx is extinguished, other behaviors that have been reinforced may increase. This phenomenon is referred to as behavioral contrast and it may be a problem if, in the process of extinguishing an undesirable behavior, other undesirable behaviors increase.
19. In Miller and Dollard's model of the approach-avoidance conflict

a. gradients of avoidance are steeper
b. at a distance from the goal, avoidance is stronger
c. conflicts are usually between two approach tendencies

d. the drive to avoid decreases as the goal gets near
A. According to Miller and Dollard, an approach-avoidcne conflict occurs when a situation elicits both a drive to approach and a drive to avoid. Miller and Dollard's experiments illustrated that in such situations, at last in rats, the drive (or gradient) to avoid is stronger than the drive to approach.
20. The Zeigarnik Effect is shown when uncompleted tasks are

a. frustrating

b. reinforcing
c. remembered better than completed tasks
d. forgotten
The Zeigarnik effect is the tendency to remember uncompleted tasks better than completed tasks. You will have a better memory for questions you believed you missed than those you answered correctly with no prob.
In his classic studies on memory, Ebbinghaus used ____ as the subjects

a. a randomly selected sample of the pop
b. his colleagues
c. college students
d. himself
D. himself
According to the reformulated learned helpless model, depressed individuals tend to believe that bad events in their lives are due to

a. global, external, unstable factors
b. global, external, stable factors
c. global, internal, stable factors
d. global, internal, unstable factors
C. Depressed people attribute bad things to themselves (internal), in all situations (global), and they occur over and over again (stable).
Implicit memory is to explicit memory as

a. semantic is to declarative
b. fact is to skill
c. procedural is to fact
d. conscous is to unconscious
C. Implicit memory refers to unconscious etrieval of memories, typically for automatic skills and procedures... equivalent to procedural memory. Explicit memory refers to conscious awareness of remembering of facts (semantic) or events (episodic). Explicit is also referred to as declarative memory since one is able to report or declare it.
According to Chomsky, the human capacity to acquire language is:
a. entirely due to environmental factors
b. an innate property
c. consistent with a behaviorist position
d. like a blank slate
b. an innate property
REM deprivation has been found to relieve depression in some patients, leading to the hypothesis that REM sleep is accompanied by:
a. a decrease in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
b. a decrease in brain levels of melatonin
c. an increase in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
d. an increase in brain levels of melatonin
a. a decrease in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
A brief period of electrical stimulation of the hippocampus enhances nerve cell electrical activity in that area of the brain for minutes to hours. This is referred to as:
a. graded potentiation
b. hyperpolarization
c. absolute refractory period
d. long-term potentiation
d. long-term potentiation
Past research has shown that females show superior verbal skills compared to males. More recently, the research has found that this differene is:
a. reversing
b. increasing
c. decreasing
d. remaining constant
c. decreasing
Which of the following imaging techniques would be used to obtain a "metabolic map" of the brain during various mental and physical activities:
a. CT
b. PET
d. MRI
d. NMR
b. PET
Which of the following would be a cause of conductive deafness:
a. infection of the middle ear
b. damage to the hair cells
c. cochlear damage
d. lesions in the auditory cortex
a. infection of the middle ear
In Piaget's model of cognitive development, which stage is associated with the development of object permanence?
a. sensorimotor stage
b. preoperational stage
c. concrete operational stage
d. formal operational stage
a. sensorimotor stage
Brain lateralization begins to develop by:
a. the first year of life
b. the second year of life
c. the third year of life
d. the age of 5
a. the first year of life
Research on attraction suggests that we are most likely to join a group when members are:
a. similar in terms of attitudes and ability
b. dissimilar in terms of attitudes and ability
c. similar in terms of attitude but diverse in terms of ability
d. diverse in terms of attitude but similar in terms of ability
a. similar in terms of attitudes and ability
As people interact and carry out tasks with one another, their beleifs and expectations tend to converge into a common perspective. This fact was demonstrated by which of the following studies:
a. Sherif's Robber's Cave study
b. Sherif's autokinetic effect studies
c. Snyder's behavioral conformity study
d. Rosenhan's pseudopatient study
b. Sherif's autokinetic effect studies
You've noticed that when you go to the dentist and are very anxious, the pain of the drill is much worse than when you're able to remain calm and relaxed. This phenomenon is best explained by which of the following:
a. minimum threshold theory
b. gate control theory
c. signal detection theory
d. pattern theory
b. gate control theory ruggests that the spinal cord contains a mechanism (gate) that can block the transmission of pain to the brain. Apparently, negative emotional states serve to keep the gate open.
When you first go to bed, close your eyes, and relax, your brain emits regular high-amplitude, low frequency:
a. beta waves
b. delta waves
c. theta waves
d. alpha waves
d. alpha waves
Group polarization occurs when:
a. group members r split in their solution to a prob
b. group members make riskier decisions as a group than they would have as individuals
c. grp members make more extreme decisions (riskier or conservative) as a group than they would have as individuals
c. grp members make more extreme decisions
A woman who suffers from recurrent migraines should be advised to:
a. take an assertiveness training class
b. determine if certain foods precede her headaches
c. avoid becoming chilled
d. perform relaxation exercises immediately following stressful events
b. determine if certain foods precede her headaches
Research investigating the effects of examinee race on the performance of AA children in IQ tests suggests that:
a. the performance of AA children is significantly suppressed when the examiner is White
b. the performance of AA children is significantly improved when the examiner is white
d. the performance of AA children is affected more by the examiner's testing exp than by his or her race
d. the performance of AA children is affected more by the examiner's testing experience (esp with AA children)
Difficulties in concentration, forgetfulness, sensitivity to cold, unexplained weight gain, and constipation are symptomatic of:
a. pernicious anemia
c. hyperadrenalism
c. hypoglycemia
d. hypothyroidism
d. hypothyroidism
What is associated with depression, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, anorexia and weight loss, and weakness?
pernicious anemia
What is associated with weakness, headache, hunger, and anxiety?
hypoglycemia
Researchers interested in locus of control distinguish between individuals who have an internal locus of control and individuals who have an external locus of control. Which of the following is not true about the diff between "internals" and externals?
a. internals are more likely than externals to view class diff as being due to a lack of effort on the part of members of the lower class
b. following a nat disaster, internald exhibit greater frustration and anxiety than externals because the cause and effects of the disaster are out of their control
c. among institutionalized elderly adults, externals tend to exhibit better adjustment than internals, while the opposite is true among non-institutionalized elderly adults
d. as students, internals are more likely than externals to consult with their instructors before a class exam.
B. Externals exhibit greater frustration and anxiety following a natural disaster than internals and are less likely to seek immediate remedies for the consequences of the disaster
Development of which of the following interest tests involved comparing the responsesof people working in various occupations with those of people in general?
a. SCII
b. MMPI
c. Kuder OIS
d. Holland's SDS
a. SCII (Strong-Campbell interest Inventory) was designed for vocational counseling and personnel selection of individuals at the llth and 12th grade level, college age, and adult.
What interest test does not involve comparing the interests of individuals in various occupations to individuals in general but, instead, involves determining the interest patterns of individuals in diff occupational groups?
Kuder OIS (Occupational Interest Survey)
Which of the following outcomes is not predicted by cognitive dissonance theory?
a. a college student who is subjected to a difficult and painful initiation into a frat is likely to resent the other members
b. a gambler who loses all his money will say he gambles for the fun of it
c. a person who breaks his arm playing football will say that broken bones are not that painful
d. a person paid 2.50 an hour for stuffing envelopes will rate the task as more pleasant than a person paid $10 an hour for doing the same task
a. (in D., the person paid $2.50 will be faced with insufficient justification for his actions and would attempt to generate a sufficient justification)
If an adult takes phenobarbital every night for six weeks and then abruptly stops taking the drug, what will be the likely result:
a. she will not experience any change in REM sleep
b. she will experience an increase in REM sleep
c. she will experience a decrease in REM sleep
d. she will experience an increased need for sleep
b. she will experience an increase in REM sleep
A social psychologist finds, in his study designed to assess the effect of therapy fees on satisfaction with therapy, that clients who have to work overtime or get a second job to pay for tx generally express greater satisfaction than wealthy clients or clients who are receiving therapy for free or at low cost (or their insurance covers it). This finding provides support for which of the following?
a. the overjustification hypothesis
b. cognitive dissonance theory
c. the approach-avoidance conflict
d. equity theory
b. cognitive dissonance theory
Research investigating the impact of maternal employment on parent-child interactions has shown that mothers who are employed fulltime:
a. describe their sons and daughters more favorably tha unemployed mothers
b. describe their sons and daughters more negatively
c. describe only their sons more positively than unemployed mothers
d. describe only their daughters more positively than mothers who are unemployed
d. describe only their daughters more positively than mothers who are unemployed
The catecholamine hypothesis predicts that drugs which ____ will alleviate depression:
a. decrease norepinephrine levels
b. maintain or increase norepinephrine levels
c. decrease epinephrine levels
d. maintain or increase epinephrine levels
b. MAO inhibitors and other drugs that maintain or increase levels of norepinephrine in the brain have been found to decrease depressive symptoms.
Antisocial behavior and later delinquency have been associated with
a. an authoritarian parenting style and consistent physical discipline
b. an authoritarian parenting style and inconsistent, excessive discipline
c. a laissez-faire parenting style and inconsistent warmth and concern
d. a laissez-faire parenting style and harsh, inconsistent discipline
d. a laissez-faire parenting style and harsh, inconsistent discipline
The venom of the black widow spider is believed to cause violent and uncontrollable muscle contractions by affecting the activity of which of the following neurotransmitters:
a. acetylcholine
b. norepinephrine
c. enkephalin
a. acetylcholine - is found in the peripheral nervous system, the spinal cord, and certain regions of the brain. In the peripheral nervous system, it activates both muscles and glands.
You are a community psychologist working with two rival gangs. Which of the following represents the intervention that is most likely to decrease the hostility between members of the groups:
a. talk to them about the different theories of aggression so that they understand the processes behind their actions
b. have the gangs organize a protest against police brutality in their neighborhood
b. focusing on superordinate, common goals shared by both parties
As a projective test, the Bender is most commonly used as a
a. nonvrebal measure of intelligence
b. nonverbal measure of personality
c. screening device for organicity
d. screening device for learning disabilities
b. was originally developed as a measure of visual and perceptual skills. Currently used as an objective test to assess personality, intelligence, and organicity and as a projective test to assess personality
In a study examining affiliation, experimental subjects are told that they will be receiving a series of electric shocks. Subjects are then given the opportunity to either wait alone, wait with other students who will be participating in the same experiment, or wait with other students who are merely waiting to see their faculty advisors. Results of the study will most likely confirm the hypothesis that:
a. misery loves company
b. misery loves miserable company
c. misery loves unmiserable company
d. misery loves no company
b. misery loves miserable company
In early adolescence, behavioral and emotional problems are most often related to:
a. family events
b. peer events
c. academic events
d. physiological changes
a. family events
Neurotransmitters are known to be involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another, and, in recent years, investigators have identified the specific functions of some neurotransmitters. For example, it is believed that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine:
a. activates skeletal muscles and is involved in voluntary movements
b. decreases alertness and hastens the onset of sleep
c. is implicated in the development of schizophrenia and other mental disorders
d. is involved in the control of pain and stress
a. activates skeletal muscles and is involved in voluntary movements
______ a catecholamine, is most associated with personality, mood, and drive states
Norepinephrine
______ one of the endogenous morphine substances found in the brain is believed to be involved in the mediation of pain
Enkephalin
________ is believed to be involved in the suppression of the ARAS, the regulation of temperature, hunger, and aggression and the affective disorders and schizophrenia
Serotonin
A 35yo woman is being treated by a psychiatrist and is taking medication for her disorder. At a party, after eating some aged cheese and drinking some wine, the woman develops an extreme headache. A friend drives her to the emergency room of a local hospital..... elevated blood pressure. The woman is taking which of the following drugs:
a. a tricyclic
b. lithium
c. an MAO inhibitor
d. chlorpromazine
c. an MAO inhibitor
Generally speaking, as an objective test, the Bender is most useful for identifying which of the following:
a. damage to the left hemisphere
b. damage to the right hemisphere
c. bilateral temporal lobe lesions
d. diffuse brain damage
b. damage to the right hemisphere
Behavioral assessment is distinguished from traditional assessment in several ways. Which of the following is not a characteristic associated with behavioral assessment:
a. focuses on directly observable behaviors and environmental factors
b. views outward behaviors as signs of an individual's underlying characteristics
c. involves assessing behaviors repeatedly throughout the course of the intervention
d. involves assessing specific rather than global aspects of the individual's behaviors
b. views outward behaviors as signs of an individual's underlying characteristics
In terms of gender differences, the research has found all of the following to be true except:
a. males are more likely than females to respond negatively to croweded situations
b. males are more likely to be task leaders and females are more likely to be social leaders
c. in conversations, males are more likely than females to interrupt
d. men's opinions of themselves are more affected by negative evals by others while women's opinions are more affected by positive evals
d.women's opinions of themselves are more affected by both positive and negative evals by others
Research investigating the relationship between interest test scores and future occupational choice suggests that these tests have thehighest predictive validity for:
a. lower class
b. middle class people
c. upper class
d. lower and upper class
b. middle class
Recent research examining the effects of divorce on children has revealed that:
a. boys exhibit more adverse effects immediately after the divorce but girls show more difficulties in the long run
b. boys exhibit more adverse effects than girls immediately after the divorce and in the long run
c. boys exhibit more adverse efffects than girls only when the parental relationship continues to be marked by overt conflict
b. boys exhibit more adverse effects than girls immediately after the divorce and in the long run
Which of the following orders (from least decline to most decline0 best represents the changes in WAIS subtest scores that can be expected to occur with increasing age:
a. info, object assembly, arithmetic
b. coding, picture completion, comprehension
c. info, vocabulary, object assembly
d. object assembly, vocabulary, info
c. info, voc, object assembly
When usng the technique known as empirical criterion-keying, which of the following is of most interest:
a. the degree to which items intercorrelate with each other
b. the degree to which item scores correlate with the total score
c. the extent to which items distinguish between specified target groups
d. the extent to which common elements account for interrelated sets of scorexs
c. the extent to which items distinguish between specified target groups
The results of a longitudinal study designed to assess the relationship between age and intelligence is most likely to find that
a. general IQ begins to decline in the early 20s
b. crystallized intelligence shows more decrements than fluid intelligence beg in early adulthood
c. measures of reasoning and word fluency begin to show declines in scores sooner than measures of verbal meaning and number
d. declines in reasoning, word fluency, verbal meaning, and number usu begins between the ages of 30 and 40
c. measures of reasoning and word fluency begin to show declines in scores sooner than measure of verbal meaning and number
The ______ is best described as the "gateway to memory" because of its involvement in the storage of new information:
a. hippocampus
b. hypothalamus
c. thalamus
d. r.a.s.
a. hippocamput
The ______ is most assocaited with the maintenance of the body's internal balance (homeostasis).
hypothalamus
The _____ relays sensory messages to the cortex.
thalamus
The ___________ is involved in arousing the cortex and screening incoming information.
reticular activating system (RAS)
Research on the effects of aging on IQ have shown that performance IQ declines more rapidly than verbal IQ. Of the performance subtests, which of the following ordinarily show the greatest effeects of aging:
a. picture arrangment and digit symbol
b. similarities and block design
c. object assembly and picture completion
d. digit span and digit symbol
a. picture arrangement and digit symbol
Research on the effects of aging on IQ have shown that performance IQ declines more rapidly than verbal IQ. Of the performance subtests, which of the following ordinarily shows the greatest effects of agina:
a. picture arrangement and digit symbol
b. similarities and block design
c. object assembly and picture completion
d. digit span and digit symbol
a. picture arrangment and digit symbol
What aspect of Freud's theory did Erikson expand upon in the formation of his own developmental theory
a. the relationship of the id to the ego
b. the resolution of the Oedipus Complex
c. the impact of the superego
d. the role of the ego
d. the role of the ego
REsearch comparing the effects of biolateral and right unilateral ECT on memory suggests that:
a. both forms are assoc with substantial anterograde and retrograde amnesia
b. right unilateral ACT reduces retrograde amnesia but not anterograde amnesia
c. right unilateral ECT reduces anterograde amnesia but nor retrograde amnesia
d. right unilateral ECT reduces both anterograde and retrograde amnesia
d. right unilateral ECT reduces both anterograde and retrograde amnesia
An examinee whose highest score on Holland's occupational themes is on the realistic scale would probably be least interested in pursuing a career as a
a. farmer
b. bookkeeper
c. technical writer
d. social worker
d. social worker
A mother is most likely to accurately recall which of the following about her child:
a. birth weight
b. school grades
c. height at certain ages
d. age when read first word
a. birth weight - most consistently and accurately remember their children's birth weights
Research on the impact of teacher expectations has demonstrated that:
a. expectations have minimal effects on student motivation or performance
b. expectations are, for the most part, consistent with students' actual abilities
c. expectations are often based on personal characteristics, especially race and class
d. expectations can have negative effects on performance but rarely have positive ones
c. expectations are often based on personal characteristics, esp race and class
Hypnogigic hallucinations are:
a. misperceptions of real stimuli
b. sensations perceived in the wrong sensory modality
c. false perceptions that occur when falling asleep
d. false perceptions assoc with hallucinogenic use
c. false perceptions that occur when falling asleep
On the Stanford-Binet, the "matrices" and "copying" subtests provide information on:
a. crystallized abilities
b. fluid analytic abilities
c. short-term mrmory
d. perceptual-motor speed
b. fluid/analytic abilities
Operant extinction would NOT be the tx of choice when:
a. an alternative behavior cannot be identified
b. the behavior has been reinforced on a continuous schedule
c. a temporary increase in the behavior cannot be tolerated
d. the baseline levels of the bx cannot be established
c. a temporary increase in the bx cannot be tolerated
A child in the preoperational stage of development:
a. carefuly follows the rules when playing a game
b. views death as a bogeyman that can be outwitted
c. thinks objects disappear when they have been hidden from view
d. treats objects as symbols of things (e.g., dollas as babies) -
d. the manipulation of symbols is an essential characteristic of the preoperational stage of development
A child carefully follows the rules when playing a game.
Is characteristic of what Piaget stage of cognitive development?
concrete operational stage
A child views death as a "bogeyman" that can be outwitted. This usually happens around age 7, when the child is in the ________ stage of cognitive development.
Concrete
A child thinks objects disappear when they have been hidden from view. This is characteristic of what cognitive stage of development?
This is characteristic of the sensorimotor period of development
For the treatment of hypertension, biofeedback:
a. is generally ineffective
b. is effective only when combined with medication
c. is about equally as effective as relaxation or self-monitoring of blood pressure
d. is more effective than relaxation or self-monitoring of blood pressure
c. is about equally as effective as relaxation or self-monitoring of blood pressure
Which of the following is NOT true about Tourette's disorder:
a. symptoms are likely to be lifelong
b. treatment often involves the administration of neuroleptics
c. symptoms cannot be voluntarily suppressed
d. symptoms tend to wax and wane
c. symptoms cannot be voluntarily suppressed
To aximize the usefulness of prompts to facilitate the development of stimulus control, you would do all of the following except:
a. make sure prompts focus attention on the discriminative stimulus
b. use the weakest or least intrusive prompts possible
c. fade the prompts as rapidly as possible
d. make sure the prompts involve keeping the discriminative stimulus constant while changing the nature of the S-delta stimulus
d. To facilitate the individual's ability to discriminate between discriminative and S-delta stimuli, prompts can be used.

d. Correct - prompts work bettwe when they are attached to the discriminative stimulus. - apparently because this increases attention to that stimulus (which is the one that signals that the behavior is desirable or acceptable).
In distinguishing Social Phobia from Agoraphobia, it is important to keep in mind that:
a. the presence of panic attacks is more indicative of Agoraphobia than Social Phobia
b. Agoraphobia involves anxiety in multiple social settings, while Social Phobia is restricted to one or a few settings
c. a diagnosis of Social Phobia in adults is made only when the individual is aware that her anxiety is unreasonable
d. a diagnosis of Agoraphobia in individuals over 18 requires a duration of symtptoms for at least six months
c. a diagnosis of Social Phobia in adults is made only when the individual is aware that her anxiety is unreasonable
According to Kohlberg, the moral judgments of preschool children are ordinarily based on
a. the dictates of the superego
b. role conformity
c. an inner sense of right and wrong
d. the consequences of the act
d. the consequences of the act
From the perspective of schemata theory, your memory for an unusual event that occurred this morning:
a. is likely to be remembered more accurately if coded semantically
b. is not likely to be remembered if it is not subsequently recalled and rehearsed
c. is likely to be altered by your past experiences in similar situations
d. is likely to be altered by the circumstances that immediately followed the event
c. is likely to be altered by your past experiences in similar situations
An assumption underlying the notion of "groupthink" is that:
a. pressures toward uniformity limit task effectiveness
b. increasing cohesiveness results in more extreme decisions
c. excessive pressures toward conformity produce reactance
d. lack of familiarity with task demands leads to maintenance of the status quo
a. pressures toward uniformity limit task effectiveness
tHE NOTION THAT THERE ARE THREE MAJOR LIFE TASKS - FRIENDSHIP, OCCUPATION, AND LOVE - IS MOST CONSISTENT WITH THE PHILOSOPHY OF:
A. pERLS
B. bERNE
C. rOGERS
D. aDLER
D. aDLER - Adler believed that people are motivated primarily by an innate social interest and that the goal in life is to act in ways that fulfill social responsibilities
The administration of an antiandrogen as a treatment for a paraphilia:
a. is contraindicated because of its negative side effects
bl is useful for reducing relapse rates following participation in a tx program
c. is recommended as an adjunct to a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral intervention
d. is asssociated with better short and long term effects than behavioral or cognitive-behavioral interventions
c. is recommended as an adjunct to a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral intervention
The primary tartet of "advocacy consultation" is best described as:
a. worker wellbeing
b. the child's best interests
c. interpersonal conflict
d. social change
d. social change - focuses on social systems
A young child has learned that objects that fly in the sky are called "birds." The first time she notices a plane in the sky, she points to it and says "bird." From a Piagetian perspective, this child's response illustrates:
a. equilibration
b. adaptation
c. accomodation
d. assimilation
d. assimilation- involves fitting a new situation or object into one's existing cognitive structure or schema.
______ occurs when the child modifies her existing schema to fit a new situation or object
accomodation
_____ refers to the establishment of a state of equilibrium through a combination of accomodation and assimilation
equilibration
The need for physical guidance with possible resultant negative consequences (e.g., aggressive or avoidance behaviors) is associated with which of the following:
a. aversive counterconditioning
b. negative practice
c. response cost
d. overcorrection
d. overcorrection
Which of the following is generally considered to be most important in the early development of attachment between an infant and her caretaker:
a. pleasant tactile stimulation of the infant by the caretaker
b. satiation of the infant's hunger by the caretaker
c. provivion of a structured, nonchanging environment by the caretaker
d. provision of consistent auditory stimulation by the caretaker's voice
a. pleasant tactile stimulation of the infant by the caretaker
There is some evidence that the rates of Bipolar II Disorder are higher for AA and Hispanic individuals than for others. In other words, a clinician is more likely to observe, in these indiivduals:

a. episodes of depressed mood and hypomania that do not meet the criteria for Major Depressive and Manic Episodes
b. episodes of Major Depression and hypomania that do not meet the criteria for a Manic Episode
c. episodes of Mania and depressed mood that do not meet the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode
d. rapidly alternating major Depressive and Manic Episodes
b. episodes of Major Depression and hypomania that do not meet the criteria for Manic Episode
Research examining the role of raters' expectations on their ratings ahs found that, when ratees are equal in actual level of performance:
a. raters assign lower ratings to ratees who perform worse than they expected than to ratees whose performance matches their expectations
b. raters assign lower ratings to ratees who perform better than they expected than to ratees whose performance matches their expectations
c. raters assign lower ratings to ratees who perform worse or better than they expected than to ratees whose performance matches their expectations
c. raters assign lower ratings to ratees who perform worse or better than they expected than to ratees whose performance matches their expectations.
Research on job satisfaction suggests that it:
a. is a relatively stable trait and is minimally affected by job changes
b. is relatively stable within the same job but unstable when measured across different jobs
c. is relatively unstable and varies over time both within the same job and acrodd diff jobs
d. may be stable or unstable within and across jobs depending on the characteristics of the particular worker
a. is a relatively stable trait and is minimally affected by job changes
During the first few sessions with a male client, you learn that he has trouble maintaining friendships and is disturbed by this since he doesn't like being alone; has frequent mood shifts and gets very angry about even minor irritations; isn't sure what he wants to do with his life, and has had three different jobs in the past two years. Based on thsi information, the best dx is:
a. Borderline Personality Disorder
b. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
c. Histrionic Personality Disorder
d. Schizoid Personality Disorder
a. Borderline Personality Disorder
Sexual activity among the elderly is most related to:
a. sexual activity earlier in life
b. attitudes toward sex and sexuality
c. interest in sex
d. overall life satisfaction
a. sexual activity earlier in life
The rational-economic model of decision-making views decision-makers as attempting to make:
a. satisficing decisions
b. bounded decisions
c. representative decisions
d. optimal decisions
d. optimal decisions
_____ what describes the assumption underlying the administrative model of decision-making?
satisficing decisions
Quality of work life programs may address many of the same issues addressed by process consultants but the focus is somewhat ______ and targets the inclusion of ______ in decision making processes.
narrower; employees
People with _____ are task/performance-oriented, prefer moderately difficult goals, and desire frequent feedback about their job performance:
a. an external locus of control
b. unmet self-actualization needs
c. high scores on the MACH scale
d. a high need for achievment
d. a high need for achievment
A psychologist who views learning as the result of operant conditioning would likely attribute the acquisition of complex behaviors to which of the following:
a. chaining
b. stimulus control
c. higher-order conditioning
d. stimulus generalizationA
A. . with chaining each response in the chain of responses required to learn and perform a complex behvior serves as a reinforcement for the previous response in the chain
A behavior is said to be under " " when it is elicited by the presence of some stimuli but not others.
stimulus control
_________ conditioning is a form of classical conditioning involving the pairing of a second neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus so that the second neutral stimulus also elicits the conditioned response.
Higher order conditioning
________ ________ is occurring when stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus also elicit the conditioned response. It can explain how behaviors can occur in situations outside the context in which they were originally learned.
stimulus generalization
A behavioral therapist is using positive reinforcement to increase a desired behavior. After the behavior is well established, the psychologist switches from a continuous schedule of reinforcement to an intermittent one. This technique is referred to as
a. thinning
b. fading
c. shaping
d. inoculation
a. thinning
A 71yo retired college prof obtains a score of 90 on an IQ test, he exhibits deficits in both judgment and abstract thinking, and has significant memory loss, which he does not seem to be aware of. His wife says that, in the past year, he just hasn't seemed like himself. These symptoms are most suggestive of
a. korsakoff's syndrome
b. pseudodementia
c. alzheimer's disease
d. normal aging
c. alzheimer's disease
Family therapy is probably contraindicated in which of the following situations:
a. improvement in one family member is likely to cause distress in another family member
b. the presenting problem involves long term marital conflict
c. family members attribute their problems to one of the members
d. one family member suffers from extreeme depression
d. one family member suffers from extreme depression
Freud and Skinner share in common a ______ point of view:
a. pessimistic
b. constructionist
c. phenomenological
d. deterministic
d. deterministic
Every time a child in an institutional setting has a tantrum, the nurse, the only person with whom the child has a positive relationship, calmly but firmly tells the child to stop his behavior. The child's behavior increases rather than decreases over time. This is an example of
a. positive reinforcement of the of the misbehavior
b. neg reinforcement of the misbehavior
c. pos punishment for the misbehavior
d. negative punishment for the misbehavior
a. positive reinforcement of the misbehavior
A mother complains that she is afraid to let her 8 month old child out of his cribe because, when he is allowed to craw, he eats dirt and bugs off the floor even if he has just completed a normal mean. The child's symptoms are suggestive of which of the following DSM diagnoses:
a. Pica
b. Bulimia
c. Rumination Disorder
d. Eating Disorder NOS
a. Pica
The psychiatrist Milton Erickson most often used hypnosis in therapy in order to:
a. increase a client's willingness to cooperate
b. help a client relax
c. help a client recall unconscious material
d. help the therapist take charge of the treatment
d. help the therapist take charge of the treatment - as a way of gaining leverage with the patients and manipulating them to change by issuing directives
Implosive therapy and flooding share in common which of the following:
A. they both involve exposure to an aversive (unconditioned) stimulus
b. they are both based on counterconditioning
c. they're both operant techniques
d. they both lead, ideally, to extinction of the undesirable response
d. they both lead, ideally, to extinction of the undesirable response - through exposure to the feared stimulus either in vivo (flooding) or in imagination (implosive therapy), the conditioned response is eventually extinguished.
A father puts his son in his room every time the boy hits his sister. In order to increase the probability that the boy will stop hitting his sister, the father should
a. give the child 25 cents each time he is nice to his sister
b. initially send the boy to his room every time he hits his sister and then send him to his room every three times he hits his sister
a. Punishment, like all forms of behavior therapy used to reduce undesirable behaviors, is most effective when used in conjunction with reinforcement for alternate desirable behaviors. In this case, the 25 cents would represent reinforcement (a stimulus that increases the probability of a behavior) for the alternate desirable behavior of being nice.
______ is more effective when it is applied consistently (after every performance of a behavior)
Punishment
A gradual increase in the intensity of punishment can produce >________.
habituation - if the child has to spend more and more time in his room, he may get used to it and won't mind it as much
Tom, a 35yo TV repairman, becomes extremely upset whenever his boss and coworkers say something unfavorable about his work and is very uncomfortable whenever he feels he is being watched at work. He reports having only one close friend who he says hs is very afraid of losing. Tom rarely leaves the house except to go to work and he tells you that one of the reasons is because he is not a very good driver and he fears he'll get into a car accident. Based on this info, the best dx for Tom is:
a. Schizoid Personality Disorder
b. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
c. Avoidant Personality Disorder
d. Dependent Personality Disorder
c. Avoidant Personality Disorder - bx is characterized by social discomfort and extreme sensitivity to negative evaluations.
People with Schizoid Personality Disorder appear indifferent to _______.
criticism
Schizotypal Personality Disorder entails behaviors that are similar to those associated with Schizophrenia but are less _____ and ______.
severe; transient
_______ disorder entails sensitivity to cricism, avoidance of social activities, embarrassment, and distress at the inability to form close personal relationships.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
A young man is very agitated and restless, his face is blushed, and he reports that he is urinating much more frequently than usual, is experiencing "ringing" in his ears, and is having trouble falling asleep. These symptoms are most suggestive of which of the following:
a. cannabis intoxication
b. caffeine intox
c. cocaine intox
d. amphetamine intox
b. caffeine intox
_______ entails a variety of bx and physiological symptoms: bx symptoms include euphoria, anxiety, paranoia, impaired judgment, and social withdrawal: physiological symptoms include increased appetite, dry mouth, and conjunctival infection
cannabis intox
You saw a family in therapy for severalmonths but they terminated when the husband and wife decided to get a divorce. Now, two months later, you are being asked to conduct an eval of the husband for a custody hearing. Your best course of action is to:
a. do so but avoid making a recommendation without evaluating all members of the family
b. do so only with the consent of both parents
c. do so only if you believe you can remain unbiased
d. not conduct the evaluation
d. not conduct the eval - psychs generally avoid conducting a child custody eval in a case in which the psych served in a therapeutic role fo rthe child or her immediate family...
To evaluate the impact of an educational program on student learning, which of the following would be most useful:
a. norm-referenced interpretation
b. criterion-referenced interpretation
c. a standardized test
d. an objective test
b. criterion-referenced interpretation - you would most likely want to determine how much info presented in the program has been retained and/or to what degree participatiion in the program has improved the individual's performance on a task
______ interpretation tells you how well an individual is doing compared to other people.
Normative interpretation
Grandiosity is a characteristic symptom of all of the following except:
a. Manic Episode
b. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
c. Schizoaffective Disorder
d. Schizoid Personality Disorder
d. Schizoid Personality Disorder - - characterized by restricted emotional experience and expression. Although they may seem self-absorbed, they don't exhibit grandiosity.
In treating a female client, a feminist therapist would most likely do which of the following:
a. be aware that sexism could be affecting her own analysis of the client's problems
b. realize that she must act as a teacher and positive role model
c. recognize that her client's problems are likely related to the social position that women are forced to adopt
c. recognize that her client's probs are likely related to the social position that women are forced to adopt
Which of the following illustrates the use of negative reinforcement:
a. a child's usual allowance is reduced by a specific amount each time he misbehaves
b. a child is allowed to watch tv for one hour when he finishes his homework
c. restrictions on a child's activities are removed each time he helps with household chores
d. restrictions on a child's activities are imposed each time he argues with his sis
c. restrictions on a child's activities are removed each time he helps with the household chores - restrictions are removed following a behavior in order to increase the behavior
If you are a "false positive," this means that you:
a. obatined a low score on the predictor but a high score on the criterion
b. obtained a high score on the predictor but a low score on the criterion
c. obtained low scores on both the predictor and the criterion
d. obtained high scores on both the predictor and the criterion
b. obtained a high score on the predictor but a low score on the criterion - - a false positive is someone who is classified as having the target characteristic on the basis of the predictor but who doesn't actually have the characteristic as determined by the criterion
It has been projected that between now and the year 2k, about ____ of new entrants into the workforce will be minority-group members:
a. 1/5
b. 1/4
c. 1/3
d. 1/2
c. 1/3
Which of the following provides reinforcement on a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement:
a. surprise quizzes
b. piecework
c. be-weekly paychecks
d. slot machines
d. slot machines
Surprise quizzes provide opportunities for reinforcement on a ________ interval schedule.
variable
Piecework represents a ______ schedule of reinforcement since workers are paid after completing a specified number of pieces.
fixed ratio
A bi-weekly pay schedule represents a _____ schedule of reinforcement
fixed interval
In terms of client records, the General Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services requires that:
a. the full record be retained for three years and that the full record or a summary of it be retained for an additional 12 years.
b. records be kept no longer than required by government regulation or institutional policy
c. psychologists retain records according to a standard policy that conforms to government regulations or institutional
d. psychs use their own discretion in determining policies. how long to retain records.
c. psychs retain records according to a standard policy that conforms to government regulations or institutional policies
Schizophrenia is typically characterized by profound disturbances in thinking, affect, perception, and psychomotor behavior. It is generally believed that a poor prognosis for Schizophrenia is associated with all of the following except:
a. onset in late adolescence
b. acute onset of symptoms
c. lack of emotional responsivity
d. obsessive-compulsive symptoms
b. acute onset of symptoms -
When conducting research with human subjects, a psychologist should be aware that:
a. subjects must be debriefed promptly after their participation in the study
b. subjects must be debriefed after their participation in a study only when the study has involved deception
c. subjects must be debriefed promptly if possible, or, if necessary to delay the debriefing, psychologists must reduce the risk for harm
c. subjects must be debriefed promptly if possible or, if necessary to delay the debriefing, psychologists must reduce the risk for harm
You are a psychodynamic psychotherapist and are seeing a client who has several probs. One of these probs has been found to respond best to a behavioral technique. You should:
a. seek supervision while applying the technique
b. take a class on the technique
c. make a referral to a behavioral therapist
d. discuss the issue with the client and decide what she wants to do
c. make a referral to a bx therapist... given the limited info this is the best answer
Management by objectives involves:
a. clear guidelines for goals and objectives that are determined by management and presented to employees
b. clear guidelines for goals and objectives that are determined by employees and presented to mangement
c. the joint determination of goals and objectives by management and employees
d. the identification of goals and objectives that gradually increase in difficulty level
c. C. predicated on goal-setting theory, which proposes that individuals are most motivated to achieve those goals that they have consciously agreed to pursue. best way is to allow employees to participate in goal-setting.
According to Seligman's recent reformulation of his theory of learned helplessness, feelings of helplessness and depression are due to:
a. the individual's beliefs about the availability of reinforcement for non-depressed behaviors
b. the reinforcements that the individual is receiving for acting in a helpless manner
c. the individual's attributions about his or her lack of control over external events
d. the similarity between the current situation and the situation in which the individual first experienced a loss of control
c. the indivudal's attributions about his or her lack of control over external events
A test has a standard deviation of 12, a mean of 60, a reliability coefficient of .91, and a validity coefficient of .60. The test's standard error of measurement is equal to:
a. 12
b. 9.6
c. 3.6
d. 2.8
c. 3.6 - to calculate the standard error of measurement, you need two pieces of information: the standard deviation of the test sc ores and the test's reliability coefficient. To calculate the standard error, you multiply the standard deviation times the square root of one minus the reliability coefficient: 1 minus .91 is .09; the square root of .09 is .3; .3 times 12 is 3.6
With regard to power in the therapeutic relationship, a feminist therapist would most likely:
a. recognize that her power stems primarily from her ability to serve as a role model
b. acknowledge the power differential inherent in the relationship but view it as a temporary condition
c. initially foster her position of power so as to maximize her influence
d. regard power a "non-issue" because feminist therapist consider the therapeutic relationship to be equalitarian
b. acknowledge the power differential inherent in the relationship but view it as a temporary condition
A client you have been seeing for eight months says he wants to quit therapy. He feels that the original problems he came to therapy for have all been resolved. You disagree and feel that there is good reason for the man to continue seeing you. You should:
a. get the client to agree to a few more sessions
b. discuss his reasons for wanting to terminate
c. discuss his reasons for wanting to terminate and your reasons for thinking he should continue
d. let him terminate but let him know he can come back if he desires
c. discuss his reasons for wanting to terminate and your reasons for thinking he should continue
A school psychologist wants to determine if there is a significant difference in reading readiness scores between male and female students in the school's preschool program. She obtains scores on a standardized reading readiness test for 17 girls and 13 boys. Which stat test will be most appropriate for determining if there is a significant difference between the scores obtained by girls and boys:
a. two-way ANOVA
b. student's t-Test
c. Kolmogorov Test
d. chi-square test for contingency tables
c. A t-test is used to compare the mean scores obtained by two groups
The _____ is used when a study involves two independent variables.
two-way ANOVA
The _____ test is used with a single sample and ordinal data.
Kolmogorov
The _____ test is used to analyze frequency (nominal) data
chi-square
A multiple regression equation yields a predicted criterion score for an examinee based on the examinee's scores on the predictors included in a test battery When comparing a multiple regression equation, each test is weighted:
a. in direct proportion to its correlation with the criterion and in inverse proportion to its correlation with the other predictors in the test battery.
b. in inverse proportion to its correlation with the criterion and in direct proportion to its correlation with the other predictors in the test battery
c. in direct proportion to its correlation with the criterion and with the other predictors in the test battery.
d. in inverse proportion to its correlation with the criterion and with the other predictors in the test battery
a. in direct proportion to its correlation with the criterion and in inverse proportion to its correlation with the other predictors in the test battery - the test with the highest criterion-related validity and the least amount of overlap (correlation) with the other tests will be given the largest weight
In an organization, an assessment center is most likely to include which of the following:
a. a measure of psychomotor ability
b. a lie detector
c. a vestibule
d. an "in-basket test"
d. an "in-basket" test
A ____ is a facsimile of a real environment. Most commonly associated with production-type jobs - facsimile of an actual assembly line
Vestibule
Research investigating high-risk situations associated with relapse for a variety of addictive and other problem behaviors has shown that which of the following accounts for nearly three-fourths of relapse incidents:
a. urges and temptations
b. negative and positive emotional states and negative physical states
c. social pressure, interpersonal conflicts, and negative physical states
d. negative emotional states, interpersonal conflicts, and social pressure
d. negative emotional states, interpersonal conflicts, and social pressure
A problem with rational decision-making is that decision makers often examine possible alternatives only until a solution that meets minimal requirements is found and then stop looking for better alternatives. This is referred to as:
a. minimizing
b. polarizing
c. suboptimizing
d. satisficing
d. satisficing
The goals of Gestalt therapy include helping the client recognize and satisfy needs and accept polarities that exist within her personality. A psychologist using a Gestalt approach would consider the key to achieving these goals to be which of the following:
a. congruence
b. awareness
c. positive regard
d. cognitive restructuring
b. awareness
A psychologist should be aware that client records:
a. are protected by law and cannot be disclosed without the client's consent
b. are the property of the psychologist and cannot be disclosed without her consent
c. are the joint property of the psychologist and client and cannot be disclosed without tthe consent of both
d. are not free from disclosure all of the time, regardless of the wishes of the client or the psychologist
d. are not free from disclosure all of the time, regardless of the wishes of the client or the psychologist - consistent with APA's philosophy
A boxer who receives a blow to his head subsequently does not remember finishing the fight, though he remembers everything prior to the blow. The boxer's loss of memory can best be described as:
a. anterograde amnesia
b. retrograde amnesia
c. proactive inhibition
d. retroactive inhibition
a. anterograde amnesia - refers to a loss of memory for events subsequent to the trauma that produced the amnesia. Some researchers have suggested that the phenomenon of anterograde amnesia demonstrates that there must be two distinct memory systems short-term and long-term
The meadian is often the preferred measure of central tendency for highly skewed distributions because:
a. the median represents at least half of the scores
b. the median represents the most frequent scor
c. the median is relatively insensitive to extreme scores
d. of the measures of central tendency, the median is the only one that always equals an actual score
c. the median is relatively insensitive to extreme scores
The mother of a previous client of yours asks for a copy of her daughter's records. The daughter saw you for two years and died three months ago when she was 38. You should:
a. send the woman a copy of the records as requested
b. send the woman only the info you believe will not be harmful
c. allow the woman to inspect the records in your office
d. do not release any info without appropriate authorization
d. do not release any info without appropriate authorization
To make sure that the housekeeper you hired does a good job, you decide to pay him for each chore he does well rather than giving him an hourly or weekly salary. You have apparently been influenced by which of the following individuals:
a. Pavlov
b. Skinner
c. Wolpe
d. Bandura
b. Skinner - according to the principles of operant conditioning, clearly linking reinforcement to performance of the behavior is one way to maximize reinforcement
As originally defined by Horn and Cattell, fluid intelligence refers to:
a. school-acquired knowledge
b. the ability to solve novel problems
c. working memory
d. social intelligence
b. the ability to solve novel problems
At the beginning of the school year, a third grade teacher is told that ten of her students are "academic spurters" who can be expected to make substantial gains durin g the next few months. In fact, the ten children were randomly chosen. Most likely these ten students:
a. will have made more gains than the other students in the class by the end of the school year
b. will be teased or ognored by the other students who are jelous of the special attention they will receive from the teacher
c. will exhibit a high degree of academic anxiety due to thepressure put on them by the teacher
d. will be indistinguishable from the other students at the end of the school year
a. will have made more gains than the other students in the class by the end of the school year
In item response theory, the slope of the "item response curve" indicates:
a. reliability
b. difficulty level
c. discrimination
d. probability of guessing correctly
c. discrimination - an item response curve (or item characteristic curve) usu provides 3 pieces of info - item difficulty, item discrimination, and the probability of getting the item correct by guessing alone. The slopeof the curve indicates the item's ability to discriminate between low and high achievers. The flatter the slope, the less the item's discrimination
When developing an intervention for children with bx probs you are foxusing on Bronfenbrenners' microsystem. This means that you are targeting:
a. the bx probs themselves
b. the children's families
c. the parents' support systems
d. community resources
b. the children's families - Bronfenbrenner distinguishes between four interacting systems in describing the environmental influences on development: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem
The parents' support systems are part of the
exosystem
Community resources are also part of the
exosystem
Clozapine (Clozaril) is sometimes preferable to chlorpromazine (Thorazine) as a tx for Schiso bec it is less likely to produce:
a. sedation
b. extrapyramidal side effects
c. anticholinergic side effects
d. bone marrow suppression
B. extrapyramidal side effects - rarely cause movement disorders
To reduce or eliminate a child's tantrums, which of the following would prob be most effective:
a. pos reinforcement
b. neg reinforcement
c. pos punishment
d. negative punishmend
d. negative reinforcement - involves removing a stimulus following a behavior - ex: time-out and response cost
A psychologist who has already agreed to testify on behalf o the defendant in a criminal case is asked to be a fact witness for the prosecution. The psychologist should:
a. refuse to act as a fact witness
b. get permissio from defendant before acting as a fact witness
c. agree to serve as a fact witness only if she believes it is in the best interest of the defendant
d. act as a fact witness after clarifying his responsibilities to all parties to avoid any misunderstanding related to his dual roles
d. there are some exceptions to mult relationships in forensic settings.
A 13yo is having trouble doing his homework. He doesn't understand some of the material he is supposed to study and is unable to recall things he has already reviewed. Most likely, the boy's probs are due to:
a. the boy's lack of metacognitive skills
b. the boy's inconsistent use of elaboration and other encoding strategies
c. the boy's inadequate learning strategies
d. the boy's difficulty in focusing his attention
c. the boy's inadequate learning strategies
Recovery of cognitive ability following head trauma follows a predictable pattern in most patients. For example, with regard to disorientation, recovery usu occurs in the following sequence:
a. orientation to personal info, then to place, and finally to time
b. orientation to time and place followed by orientation to personal info
c. orientation to palce, then to personal info, and finally to time
d. orientation to personal info, then to time, and finally to place
a. orientation to personal info, then to place, and finally to time
The relationship between authoritative parenting and children's academic achievment:
a. is observed among white middle-class children only
b. is observed for children but not for adolescents whose school performance is more highly affected by peers
c. is observed among chidlren as well as among adolescents
d. is stronger among children who have lower levels of intelligence
c. is observed among children as well as among adolescents - benefits
Children with Tourette's Disorder often have symptoms of ADHD. In addition, they most often exhibit
a. obsessions and compulsions
b. separation anxiety
c. conduct probs
d. below-average IQ
a. obsessions and compulsions
A 32yo man doesn't like talking to his neighbors or coworkers, says he's not int in marriage, doesn't reciprocate smiling or nodding in conversations, and in school, was an underachiever and was freq teased by peers. These symptoms are most suggestive of?
Schizoid Personality Disorder